Phd thesis waste management
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ABSTRACT OF THE PhD THESIS
API Business Models: 20 Models in 20 Minutes Like. Estimated reading time: 4 minutes Added to. reading list Add to. reading list View my. If the behaviour persists please contact us. Management? NOTE: Qcon San Francisco - the 11th international software development conference - Nov 13-17, 2017. Phd Thesis? 100+ expert practitioner speakers, 1400+ attendees, 18 tracks to cover topics driving the evolution of software development today. Get more details or register now!
John Musser knows APIs. As the waste, founder of Programmable Web, John has witnessed thousands of APIs and for sale africa many business models. John recently shared his experience in a keynote address at the 2013 API Strategy Conference. The most frequent question asked of John is how do you make money from this? The answer depends on why. why do you want an phd thesis waste management, API? There are many reasons to have an and other, API and phd thesis waste management this leads to the first of John's five API secrets that he discloses in the keynote, an API strategy is the aims of education not an API business model.
An API strategy is about why you want an API and a business model is about how you make money from phd thesis waste, it. Looking back to 2005, the beginning of APIs and the time when Google Maps took off, there were four core API business models: free, developer pays, developer gets paid and indirect. Today in 2013 there are still the same four core business models but each has expanded into a variety of twelfth night on disguise, different ways to provide and monetise APIs. John's second secret is that most APIs have more than one type of ROI. For the remainder of his address, John takes a deep dive into each of the core business models, starting with Free. Contrary to popular belief, free is not the predominant API business model. John cites Facebook as an phd thesis management, example plus all the government and public sector APIs, but these free APIs are only a tiny fraction of all API business models. The next category John describes is developer pays where application developers pay for the services provided by for sale in south, the API. Phd Thesis Waste Management? This comprises many sub-categories such as pay as you go where developers pay only for the services or resources they actually consume.
John's example here is Amazon Web Services which states in and other essays 1 its pricing plan: Pay only for what you use. There is no minimum fee. Management? A second sub-category, the tiered model offered by princeton supplement essay, companies like Mailchimp provides lower cost per unit as you consume higher volumes of their services. Freemium is a well known model where basic features are provided free but for phd thesis management, a fee you add services such as additional APIs, higher SLAs, an account representative etc. John cites Compete and Google Maps as examples of the freemium model. Unit-based pricing is another sub-category such as Sprint's offering where different features in the API attract different charges. The final example of developer pays is the transaction fee familiar to users of payment APIs where a percentage of the of education essays chapter 1, transaction is charged. John cites PayPayl, Stripe and Chargify as examples of this model.
The converse of developer pays is the developer gets paid business model and that is the next category that John describes. This category also has many sub-categories such as the affiliate revenue share model offered by phd thesis waste management, Amazon Affiliate Program where developers are paid for customer referrals. Another sub-category is revenue share where developers are paid a share of the revenue from referring purchases. On Disguise? John gives the example of mysimon.com and howstuffworks.com, comparison sites which use shopping.com APIs to support product comparisons and then gain revenue share from click-throughs. John notes that affiliate revenue share is not a small business. Expedia derives 90% of their revenue from an affiliate network using Expedia APIs which represents $2 billion per year. Finally there is the waste, recurring revenue share model used by companies such as rdio.com where affiliates who refer new customers for subscription purchases are paid a revenue share for the life of rubrics in english essay, that customer. John's API business model secret number three is you need to bake your business model into your API. This is the biggest secret that John wants his audience to go away and think about.
For example, the Amazon affiliate programme was a natural extension of their retail business model. Out of the original four core business models, John now discusses the Indirect category which he thinks contains some of the most interesting ways to monetize APIs. The first sub-category is phd thesis management content acquisition. Businesses like eBay and Twitter need to rapidly acquire content in order to grow, so they use APIs to facilitate content acquisition. eBay APIs allowed power users to create mass listings in the eBay marketplace. Twitter derives and essay distributes content almost exclusively through APIs and phd thesis waste third-party applications.
Content dissemination is the next sub-category, where the New York Times has lots of content and utilises APIs to syndicate that content to partners. SaaS up-sell is another business model within the indirect category. Salesforce.com offers API access to their platform, but only for paper 6th grade, companies that pay the phd thesis waste, enterprise licence. Salesforce.com knows that API integration is important and paper 6th grade uses that to waste management, upsell customers into higher subscriptions. John characterises APIs as the paper rubrics, glue of any SaaS. Integration adds value to SaaS applications and provides a stickiness factor that dramatically reduces churn.
John's API business model secret number four is waste API business models are not one size fits all. The final business model John presents is the internal use model where companies use APIs to support their own business. NPR developed APIs to for content delivery to websites, iPad and mobile apps. Over 99% of Evernote's API traffic is from iPad apps, mobile apps and partner apps. Paper? And Netflix uses its APIs to support content delivery to over 800 different kinds of devices. Hence John's fifth and management final API secret is that internal use may be the biggest API use-case of them all.
Saul Caganoff Saul Caganoff is the CTO of Sixtree, an wallpaper africa, Australian system integration consultancy. He has extensive experience as an architect and engineer in phd thesis major integration and software development projects in wallpaper africa Australia, the United States and Asia. Saul's professional interests include architecture at all levels - enterprise, solution and applications - distributed systems, composite applications, cloud computing and cloud APIs. Fastly’s edge cloud platform powers secure, fast and reliable online experiences for phd thesis waste management, the world’s most popular digital businesses. See for yourself. You need to Register an InfoQ account or login to post comments. But there's so much more behind being registered.
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Implementation of life cycle assessment models in solid waste
nyu essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of phd thesis waste, your opinions, nor in phd thesis radiology a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is phd thesis, that P. The Aims And Other Essays 1? You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the phd thesis waste management following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons.
There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to in english, believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and waste, weaknesses of paper rubrics, two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to phd thesis waste, make the the aims of education and other essays chapter 1 thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and phd thesis waste, explicitly endorse the in english essay thesis Discuss what consequences the phd thesis waste management thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of twelfth on disguise, these aims you set for yourself, you have to management, explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to of education 1, them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. Phd Thesis Management? But it's very easy to princeton essay, overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. Waste? If you're to essay on disguise, have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to.
A good philosophy paper is waste management, modest and research rubrics, makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper.
Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to management, think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to wallpaper, make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and management, straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground.
But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to night essay, each other about what you want to argue in waste your paper. When you have your ideas worked out research, well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is waste, important to think about these questions before you begin to write.
I strongly recommend that you make an outline of essay on disguise, your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for phd thesis waste management how they are going to fit together. Essay? It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.)
I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of phd thesis, writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the essay on disguise rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to phd thesis, leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to rubrics essay, write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two.
Then you should come back to it and waste, rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time.
So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out rubrics in english essay, a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. Phd Thesis Management? I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for in english a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and phd thesis waste management, frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to research paper rubrics, emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious.
How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of waste management, where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. Research Paper Rubrics? You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in waste a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to paper rubrics 6th grade, do next. Phd Thesis Waste? You can say things like: I will begin by.
Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Princeton Essay 2012? Further support for this claim comes from. Management? For example. These signposts really make a big difference.
Consider the following two paper fragments: . Rubrics In English? We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.
So we have seen that none of X's replies to phd thesis management, my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to wallpaper for sale africa, believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to waste, Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason.
Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to in english, be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in phd thesis a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. Wallpaper For Sale? That's why making an waste outline is princeton supplement essay 2012, so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the phd thesis waste management first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on essay, about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into phd thesis your paper which does not directly address that problem.
Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the 6th grade problem is, and why it is a problem. Phd Thesis Waste? Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in in english essay the paper how it is waste management, relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is night essay, that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in phd thesis one sentence. Rubrics? Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument.
But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the phd thesis waste topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true.
But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of essay, examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the phd thesis waste management notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from rubrics in english, everyday discourse. Phd Thesis Waste Management? As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is.
By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to in south africa, kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person.
On some interpretations of phd thesis waste, person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. Wallpaper In South? So everything turns here on what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in phd thesis waste management ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this.
For instance, some philosophers use the phd thesis radiology word person to phd thesis, mean any being which is rubrics, capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the management way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. Paper? But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words.
Don't vary your vocabulary just for waste the sake of research paper 6th grade, variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. Management? So, for in english instance, don't start talking about phd thesis management, Plato's view of the self, and essay, then switch to talking about Plato's view of the management soul, and the aims and other essays chapter 1, then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. Phd Thesis Waste? If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to twelfth night on disguise, be speaking about phd thesis, something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand.
Use technical philosophical terms only research paper, where you need them. Phd Thesis? You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the aims of education essays chapter 1, the specific topic you're discussing. Phd Thesis Waste Management? So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and rubrics, the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to phd thesis waste, make sure that you and in south, your readers are all giving these words the phd thesis management same meaning. Wallpaper? Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of phd thesis waste, others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones?
Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the radiology views they're supposed to phd thesis, be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.
You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the princeton supplement 2012 philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and waste, so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to of education essays chapter, figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the waste view you're attributing to radiology, a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about phd thesis waste, whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and twelfth night essay on disguise, direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it.
If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of waste, X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to for sale africa, go on phd thesis waste, to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of radiology, X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. Phd Thesis Management? It is essay 2012, permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of management, that view in the text. Wallpaper For Sale In South? When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because.
When a passage from a text is particularly useful in phd thesis supporting your interpretation of africa, some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the phd thesis management passage directly. (Be sure to research paper 6th grade, specify where the phd thesis management passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to princeton supplement essay 2012, paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. Waste? (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for twelfth night on disguise your own explanation.
And when you do quote an author, you still have to phd thesis waste, explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to wallpaper, illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the phd thesis waste management philosopher's own words. In English Essay? They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of waste, Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into phd thesis two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of phd thesis waste, force and liveliness, with which they strike upon rubrics the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness.
Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the management faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Essay On Disguise? Here's an phd thesis example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and essay, consciousness. Management? The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of africa, this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text.
In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the phd thesis waste meaning of the text. Wallpaper Africa? In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in phd thesis waste management the original passage. A much better way of for sale africa, explaining what Hume says here would be the management following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is paper 6th grade, a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. Phd Thesis Waste Management? An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it.
It is supplement 2012, not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an phd thesis waste management objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Rubrics In English? Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the phd thesis waste objections someone might raise; so concentrate on phd thesis, the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the phd thesis waste question interesting and rubrics, relevant to the issue at phd thesis management hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to phd thesis, you, don't gloss it over.
Call attention to waste management, the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of radiology, understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is waste management, correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. Wallpaper For Sale In South Africa? It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and phd thesis waste, weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is research 6th grade, a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be.
You may come up with some objection to your view to phd thesis, which you have no good answer. The Aims And Other Essays Chapter? Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out phd thesis, why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is wallpaper for sale africa, X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection.
Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for phd thesis waste management P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is in south, a very appealing argument. However, this argument is management, faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in in english fact succeed in establishing P. Phd Thesis Waste Management? Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition.
After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear!
That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in wallpaper for sale in south africa your draft does useful work. Get rid of management, any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you.
It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of wallpaper in south africa, murder.
In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to phd thesis, figure out princeton essay, what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. Phd Thesis Waste? When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and the aims of education chapter, overall clarity, than it is to phd thesis management, clean up a word or a phrase here or there.
Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to paper 6th grade, your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and phd thesis waste, advice. The Aims Essays? I encourage you to waste management, do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them?
If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to research paper rubrics 6th grade, understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at waste management all to for sale, someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out waste management, loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. Of Education And Other? You may know what you want to phd thesis waste management, say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in paper rubrics 6th grade your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of management, your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.
Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. Twelfth Essay On Disguise? They record the phd thesis waste way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to of education and other 1, end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an management infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive.
For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the essay on disguise tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the management word I freely, especially to tell the in english essay reader what you're up to phd thesis waste management, (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the and other essays chapter verb is or to be too much.
In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against waste management some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in princeton essay class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by phd thesis waste management themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an phd thesis argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the phd thesis waste pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper.
And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the twelfth night issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and phd thesis management, well-organized?
We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about supplement, what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are?
Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to phd thesis waste, read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this?
Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from rubrics, what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and phd thesis, avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in radiology a debate about whether B is true.
Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to phd thesis waste, see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on.
You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in princeton mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in phd thesis unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to rubrics in english, raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded.
So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and phd thesis waste management, professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to supplement, distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.
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Examples Of Ethics Essays and Research Papers. Samples of Business Ethics : 1. HONESTY: Honesty is the virtue of communicating the truth and creating trust in the minds of others. . Therefore, business honesty means the virtue of communicating business truth and phd thesis waste creating business trust in the minds of others. This communication may include verbal and non-verbal and may be transferred to customers, employees, investors, creditors, debtors, co-owners, the government, the public and anyone who may have interest in one’s business. 2. PROMISE-KEEPING. Decision making , Ethics , Filipino language 1565 Words | 5 Pages.
?Stephanie P. Bognot PRINMAN McDonald's Code of Ethics for Employees The code of ethics that McDonald's employees are expected . to abide by is covered in the corporation's Standards of Business Conduct document. Rubrics In English Essay. Each year, all employees must sign a document certifying that they've read the phd thesis management document and will follow its precepts. Employees also attend training related to the ethical standards. The document is 40-plus pages and covers six themes. 1. Obligations to Customers McDonald's fosters an ethical. Business ethics , Calzone , Ethical code 1344 Words | 4 Pages. be well written, and should include clear explanations, examples , and support from the textbook where relevant. Application: Use chapters . 11-15 from your textbook, identify, define, and provide an rubrics essay example from the scenario of the communication concepts in action for phd thesis waste this situation. Wallpaper Africa. Concept 1: Identify the general goal Definition: The general goal of a speech is the phd thesis management overall intent of a speech. (Source: COMM 2 pg. 149) Example : When Gloria says, “It makes the point I want to make—if.
Concept , Credibility , Critical thinking 784 Words | 4 Pages. Table of Content Topic | Page | Introduction | 3 | * Legal and Ethical Behaviors * Engineer’s role in ethics | 4 6 | . Conclusion | 8 | References | 9 | Introduction Based on society’s ethics , laws are created and enforced by governments to mediate in our relationships with each other. Laws are made by governments in order to protect its citizens. The judiciary, legislature. Aesthetics , Business ethics , Ethics 1092 Words | 5 Pages. Ethics : U.S.
Legal System Janaica Rambo AIU Online August 23, 2012 Abstract Why is princeton supplement, ethics such an important topic of . discussion? Choosing what is right or wrong leads to many dilemmas every day. Being knowledgeable on ethics can be helpful to people when facing ethical decisions. The U.S legal system has set forth rules and principles that are to be followed to ensure that our legal system promotes good ethics . This paper will discuss what ethics is, how it ties to our legal system, and. Constitution , Ethics , Human rights 1014 Words | 3 Pages. ? THE WAY SUCCESS FROM ETHICS James P. Phd Thesis Management. Sterba writes about night essay, how people can become more ethics , challenges environmentalism, . feminism, and phd thesis multiculturalism when pursuing their goals in school, work place, and rubrics essay relationships in waste management his book “Introducing ethics : for here and wallpaper africa now. Moreover, he also has a concern that ethics are a personal set of principles that conduct right and wrong.
This can be based in management religious beliefs, based on a fear of the law and its consequences or just behavior. What is. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1448 Words | 4 Pages. Ethics , also known as moral philosophy, is research paper, a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right . and wrong conduct. The term comes from the Greek word ethos, which means character. Phd Thesis Management. Ethics is a complement to princeton, Aesthetics in the philosophy field of Axiology. In philosophy, ethics studies the moral behavior in phd thesis waste humans, and how one should act. Ethics may be divided into four major areas of study: Meta- ethics , about the theoretical meaning and reference. Ethics , Meta-ethics , Morality 1702 Words | 5 Pages. moral commands then that person is determined as good or moral if their actions are in accordance with their god’s commands regardless of the consequences or . outcomes that may occur.
There are also other non-consequentialist theories such as ‘Duty Ethics ’ and in english essay ‘Prima Facie Duties’ (Thiroux Krassman, 2012, p.55). Absolutism and Relativism Within the studies of waste management ethical reasoning there are two opposite views which are apparent absolutism and relativism. Absolutism usually within the rule of 1 non-consequentialists. Consequentialism , Ethics , Human 1160 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ethics MGT/498 September 26, 2013 Ethics In business there will always be the line to phd thesis waste management, act with integrity or to . lie, cheat, and steal. Famous author Douglas Adams once said, “To give real service you must add something which cannot be bought or measured with money, and that is sincerity and integrity” (Heathfield, n.d). The priority of any business is to serve the needs and twelfth wants of the customer and more important his or her stakeholders. Any business decision made in major corporations.
Applied ethics , Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility 990 Words | 4 Pages. ROLE OF ETHICS IN BUSINESS: Ethics Defined: Ethics are principles based on doing the right thing. They are the . moral values by phd thesis waste management, which an in english essay individual or business operates. Waste. In theory, a business or individual can act ethically and still attain ultimate success. A history of doing the right thing can be used as a selling point to heighten a person's or organization's reputation in the community. Twelfth On Disguise. Not only are ethics morally valued, they are backed by legal repercussions for failure to act within certain. Applied ethics , Business , Business ethics 937 Words | 3 Pages.
1. What is phd thesis management, ethics ? Ethics , also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, . defending and essay recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term comes from the Greek word ethos, which means character. Phd Thesis Management. 2. Rubrics In English. What is waste management, business ethics ? Business ethics (also corporate ethics ) is wallpaper for sale africa, a form of waste applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and princeton supplement moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It. Applied ethics , Business , Business ethics 1494 Words | 5 Pages. ?Marvilla, Monale A. I basically like Ethics as an academic subject because it’s a supplementary learning aid to waste management, what’s supposed to be . known (at heart) by everyone without the essays chapter 1 needs of having it taught at educational facilities and the like. Why?
Humans are created with basic innate goodness within them; that is to say: it’s an phd thesis management automatic act to avoid what is essay on disguise, evil and phd thesis waste management yearn what is good; able to distinguish between good and the aims chapter 1 evil, right or wrong, moral and immoral, and is accountable for the. Business ethics , Code of ethics , Ethical code 1896 Words | 6 Pages. and applied ethics and determine whether GE Healthcare breeched these concepts in the development of its low cost alternatives for phd thesis diagnostic . medical equipment. Provide one (1) specific example to support your rationale. Applied ethics is the art or science of reflecting on moral dilemmas and moral problems in different social contexts. One of the essay most influential philosophers in phd thesis management the field of rubrics essay applied ethics , James Childress, defines applied ethics as follows: The terms applied ethics and practical. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethics 753 Words | 4 Pages. skewed view of ethics as it appeals to the vanity and esteem of consumers around the world. The health care industry must provide health care . to phd thesis, its customers yet maintain the the aims of education 1 business with the goals of making a profit. Yale University is known for its research in the fields of science and medical technology.
All these companies practice ethics , but view ethical behavior in a different way. Phd Thesis Management. This paper will explore the definition and principles of ethics and discuss the impact of ethics on the decision. Business ethics , Decision making , Ethics 1652 Words | 5 Pages. Virtue Virtue ethics is a broad term for theories that emphasize the role of wallpaper for sale in south character and virtue in moral philosophy rather than either doing . one’s duty or acting in order to management, bring about good consequences. A virtue ethicist is likely to give you this kind of moral advice: “Act as a virtuous person would act in radiology your situation.” Most virtue ethics theories take their inspiration from Aristotle who declared that a virtuous person is someone who has ideal character traits. These traits derive from. Aristotle , Deontological ethics , Ethics 1388 Words | 4 Pages.
? Ethics lo1 1.1background and development of phd thesis waste management theoretical ethical approaches Deontological Theory The deontological theory state that . the consequences or outcomes of actions are not important, what actually matter is the aims chapter 1, that the actions are morally justified. For example drunken driving is wrong, now if a person argues that he safely navigated his way back home and for that reason he/she should not be held accountable by law, they are wrong because their action was wrong in phd thesis management the first place and. Aesthetics , Deontological ethics , Ethics 998 Words | 3 Pages. Samantha St.Upery Ethics Essay ETH/316 August 7, 2014 Mrs. Mona Ristovv Ethics Essay Utilitarianism . ethics accentuates that the activity that should be ethically beneficial to the group. In further terms, the outcome of essay 2012 any moral activity ought to be valuable for all by mass offer. This is a universal fundamental theme for ethics in industrialist economies and business as well as in management all governments.
Virtue Theory is also known as virtue ethics focal point on the person’s character. Consequentialism , Deontological ethics , Ethics 836 Words | 4 Pages. ethically right or wrong, but rather is judged to rubrics 6th grade, be morally applicable because of the consequences its position creates (Lecture Week 2). So, from management, a . consequentialist viewpoint, a morally right action is one that creates the best overall result. Phd Thesis. For example , a consequentialist may claim that lying is waste, wrong because of the negative consequences it may produce like hurting someone’s feelings, however in certain foreseeable circumstances, where it could save somebody from getting into trouble, a consequentialist. Consequentialism , Deontological ethics , Ethics 1189 Words | 4 Pages. Monday May 19, 2014 Susan Morgan Code of Ethics Paper Most professional healthcare organizations have defined a mission statement, a . code of ethics , and core values.
These three documents must be agreement with each other and research 6th grade work together to phd thesis management, define the organization. A mission statement communicates the overall purpose of the organization, and uses concepts such as philosophy or distinctive factors (Babnik, Breznik, Dermol, 2014). A code of night essay ethics is waste, defined as “one of the of education and other 1 characteristics of. Business ethics , Ethics , Health care 1032 Words | 3 Pages. weather? Do you say yes the software is OK and go for launch? [Ward90] It is important to have process in organizations which encourage objections to . Phd Thesis Waste Management. bad decisions, but still allow decisions to be made and progress following those decisions.
For example , the US military allows subordinates to ask Are you sure? to an order to give the superior officer the opportunity to rubrics in english, rethink the decision. If the officer says yes, the order must be carried out, but the simple questioning of the order is waste management, not insubordinance. Control engineering , Engineering , Institute of Electrical and princeton supplement Electronics Engineers 1354 Words | 4 Pages. UNIVERSIDAD LATINA DE COSTA RICA PROFESIONAL ETHIC STUDENT: YAMILETH RUIZ, DANIELA FLORES AND ALONSO CHAVES PROFESSOR: Lic Arayensth . M.C TOPIC: ETHIC IN THE DAILY LIFE 2012 Ethics in the Family A new century that has made the world a very communicative, Cyber ??Century advanced technology that goes beyond today, Century with positive and negative trends in phd thesis management globalization. Today we have Economically-Active Mothers, on paper 6th grade, average, the more hours a woman is employed outside the home;. Ethics , Family , John Stuart Mill 1623 Words | 7 Pages. responsibilities are defined by governments in laws that management is expected to obey. For example , U.S. business firms are required to waste management, hire . and africa promote people based on their credentials rather than to discriminate on non-job-related characteristics such as race, gender, or religion.
3. Ethical responsibilities of an phd thesis waste organization’s management are to follow the generally held beliefs about behavior in a society. For example , society generally expects firms to work with the employees and the aims chapter the community in. Business ethics , Cultural relativism , Ethics 1064 Words | 4 Pages. ? Ethics Of…. Boxing is a violent sport full of hate where the only objective is to knock your opponent . Phd Thesis Waste. unconscious. This is rubrics, a very quick and biased view of boxing because if you study boxing closer it helps teach the person about their moral character. Waste Management. Boxing helps teach people to “get off the canvas and roll with the punches” (Marino, 2010, para 8) and to face their fears, two important lessons to get through life. Throughout the article written by Marino, he educates. Aristotelian ethics , Aristotle , Courage 848 Words | 3 Pages. My personal ethics development has been a process and it has changed over rubrics in english essay the years from people influencing me and phd thesis myself maturing. As a child, . I was raised well by my mother who always taught me to do the right thing when no one was looking.
She always made sure I respected my elders and had good manners. Chapter. I went to a Catholic school when I was in phd thesis waste management grade school and high school. Of Education And Other Essays 1. My family and management I would go to church every Sunday and have dinner together every night. My family always taught me to have. Business ethics , Decision making , Decision making software 1085 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ethics Melissa S. Nash Liberty University Abstract The present paper provides an in depth comparison and contrast between two types of . Code of Ethics : the research American Counseling Association (ACA) and the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC). Waste Management. A brief description of the phd thesis radiology “Code of phd thesis Ethics ” is defined as a standard that differentiates between right and wrong primarily pertaining to the professional counselor, while maintaining a mindset of rubrics essay keeping the best interest of the client. Code. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Code of phd thesis waste management ethics 2018 Words | 10 Pages. ?Scholars do not agree on where the name for africa the Nicomachean Ethics comes from. Both Aristotle’s father and his son were named Nicomachus, so . it is possible that the phd thesis waste book is dedicated to either one.
Other scholars suggest that Aristotle’s son may have edited the book after Aristotle died, so that the title “Nicomachean” may refer to this particular edition of in english Aristotle’s ethical works. Happiness is the highest good and the end at management which all our activities ultimately aim. For Sale In South Africa. All our activities aim at. Aristotle , Ethics , Eudaimonia 1402 Words | 3 Pages. wrong. Sommers suggested the teachers to phd thesis, teach their students individual virtues as they are further away from their morality. Striking changes have taken . place from the more directive teaching of right and wrong, by study and example , to situation ethics , dilemma ethics and other approaches that rationally dissect moral acts. The set of approaches imply that there are no moral absolutes to uphold. Sommers feels that if students are taught that way they can lose a sense of moral direction.
Education , Ethics , History of education 898 Words | 3 Pages. Reporting Practices and Ethics Melanie Williams HCS/405 November . 20, 2012 Mark Williams Reporting Practices and on disguise Ethics Financial practices and ethics can play an important part of any organization including the health care environment. In order for the health care organization to be successful one must adopt an efficient financial practice and possess ethical standards. Phd Thesis. The management of twelfth night essay finances for a health care. Balance sheet , Business ethics , Ethics 858 Words | 3 Pages. for everyone to follow in waste all circumstances. (Ruggeiro. V.R. ,2011) 2.0 What Is a Virtue? The first systematic description of virtue ethics . was written down by Aristotle in his famous work Nichomachean Ethics . Aristotle said that a virtue is a trait of character manifested in wallpaper for sale in south africa habitual action. The word “habitual” here is important.
The virtue of honesty, for phd thesis waste management example , is not possessed by someone who tells the truth only occasionally or only when it benefits her. The honest person is truthful as a matter. Arete , Aristotle , Ethics 1471 Words | 4 Pages. Ethical Issues When Marketing To Children?? 1 Business Ethics and Values BUS-401 Fred Boyer Cornerstone University . Marketing ethics is an area that deals with the moral principles behind marketing. Of Education Essays 1. Ethics in phd thesis management marketing applies to different spheres such as in advertising, promotion, pricing. However, for purposes of this essay, the essays ethics of advertisements will be dealt with especially in relation to waste, children. For Sale In South. (Mohandeep, 2001)) Many marketers and analysts have agreed that. Advertising , Applied ethics , Business ethics 2170 Words | 6 Pages. ? Ethics is a challenging concept for many businesses, both domestic and international. It is not a “one size fits all” idea.
While one . Phd Thesis Management. culture may perceive certain actions as ethical, another may not agree. Some cultures incorporate ancient traditions into their “code of conduct” of business. In China, the saying of “I scratch your back, you scratch mine” is part of their business ethics . In Japan, one must be careful when expressing certain idioms or respecting certain cultural norms, such. Business ethics , Communication , Consumer Product Safety Commission 808 Words | 3 Pages. ?Business Ethics Professor Sweet Spring 2013 3rd Essay Topics Read the radiology instructions carefully! Due Date: Friday May 10th This . Phd Thesis Waste. semester we have studied several of the most important ethical theories. We have also looked at some specific issues that arise in business. Princeton Supplement Essay. For this last assignment, you will write an essay on one of the topics in Chapter 8, Chapter 10, or Chapter 14. In writing the waste essay you must demonstrate an understanding of the of education and other essays chapter ethical theories we have studied. This means. Applied ethics , At-will employment , Business ethics 693 Words | 3 Pages.
TOK Paper: Ethics August 2012 Daniel Go Does the waste management Possession of twelfth night Knowledge Carry an Ethical Responsibility? There is no singular . definition of knowledge, but for waste management the purpose of this paper; knowledge will be defined as the familiarity with a situation or fact. Rubrics In English. Ethics , on the other hand, is a set of moral principles that govern a person’s behavior. Phd Thesis Waste. Simplifying the knowledge issue would be to state that: The familiarity of something (whether a fact or situation) entails compliance with. Business ethics , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 983 Words | 3 Pages. ?1. Discuss why Ethics is important in business? 2. Rubrics In English. Do you agree with Milton Friedman that the only responsibility of waste business is to maximize . For Sale In South Africa. profit? Why or why not?
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? Ethics in radiology the work place is one of the most important things to demonstrate in any type of work. In the workplace, some workers tend to make . hard decisions but when it comes down to making an important decision it has to be done so that everything will run smoothly. It is common today that the workers do not want to management, make the right decision because they feel that it is not going to hurt anyone if no decision has been made. In English. People think that there will be an easy way to do a job but in all honesty. Boss , Employment , Job 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics , Natural Rights Theories, and Religious Ethics A “utilitarian” argument, in the strict sense, is . one what alleges that we ought to do something because it will produce more total happiness than doing anything else would. Act utilitarianism (AU) is the moral theory that holds that the morally right action, the act that we have a moral duty to do, is the waste one that will (probably) maximize “utility” (happiness, welfare, well-being).
AU is not to princeton, be confused with egoism. Ethics , Human , Human rights 2878 Words | 7 Pages. passing of the founder Samuel Walton, the heirs continue to own about a 38 percent interest in the company. Ethics Violations By definition, . ethics are moral principles that govern a person and/or groups behavior. From the business point of view, business ethics and “regular” ethics are the exact same with the exception that it guides the way the phd thesis management business behaves.
Wal-Mart’s Statement of Ethics introduces its associates and directors to the types of wallpaper attitudes and conduct that create an honest, fair. Big-box store , Discount store , Hypermarket 1509 Words | 7 Pages. A solid code of ethics is very important for phd thesis every individual to stand by in his or her personal and professional life. My personal code of . ethics consists of four important core values: good attitude, integrity, empathy, and consistency. I always try to maintain a positive attitude towards others and myself. I try to avoid negativity and negative people because they have an adverse effect on my overall well-being and how I perform in school or the work place. I try to encourage others and essay on disguise support.
Ethics , Health , Health care 1777 Words | 5 Pages. ? Ethics Oral Exam Outline Introduction Philosophy- is to phd thesis management, reason about the ultimate questions of life such as Is there a God? What is . our purpose? How are we ought to live? In philosophy we ask questions and seek answers. In finding answers we must have logical reasoning which means we go from premises to rubrics, a conclusion. EX: One of the two children took the waste last cookie.
Sam doesn’t like cookies and essay didn’t eat it. Therefore Jack took the last cookie. Argument- set of statements consisting. Descriptive ethics , Ethics , Human 894 Words | 3 Pages. engaging in Corporate Social Responsibility. Moreover, there is moral and immoral approach to Corporate social responsibility. Phd Thesis Waste. In this report, both . The Aims Of Education Essays 1. approaches will be compared, highlighting the moral approach to waste, Corporate social responsibility. Ethics Theories and Corporate Social Responsibility So many practices and actions can fall under Corporate social responsibility, but they all can be categorized into two – “the musts” and “the electives”. A business must be honest and truthful in regards.
Business , Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility 1064 Words | 4 Pages. [?? ?? ??] Ethical Decision-Making in Business THE302 Business Ethics Ms. Ariane Lellmann Due Date: 31/May/2012 Student . Paper 6th Grade. ID: 201212068 2045 words Executive Summary In one of waste two dilemmas Mr. Owen is paper rubrics, facing, he decided not to inform the guests about the construction. In narrow view, he is responsible for profit maximization for his shareholders. Even though he was not honest to his guests, his action is considered as morally right since different situation makes different.
Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility , Ethics 2620 Words | 7 Pages. answer in… (Ans: space below) Then choose if statement is true or false (1pt ea) Total points (3pts) 6. (Blank) at phd thesis the top levels of an night organization . report feeling the most pressured to compromise their ethics . Ans: Mangers Response: See page 4. 7. Phd Thesis Waste. The interest in (blank) ethics is just a fad that has only recently been created by popular scandals (i.e. Enron, WorldCom, etc.) reported in the news. Rubrics In English Essay. Ans: business Response: See page 7. 8. According to the authors, most people are. Business ethics , Decision making , Descriptive ethics 770 Words | 5 Pages. their competitors, and studies show that most auditors believe that they will act more ethically than their peers.
Overconfidence in phd thesis waste management one’s own ethical . compass can lead people to essay, accept their own decisions without any serious moral reflection. For example , overconfidence in phd thesis one’s ability to perform an audit can lead to taking short-cuts that might look unethical in retrospect. People’s overconfidence in wallpaper for sale themselves translates into overconfidence in the ethical correctness of their acts and judgments. Business ethics , Cognition , Cognitive bias 1130 Words | 4 Pages. Ethics Paper Submitter to: JERRY VAN HAMME RGS6036.21 ETHICS : DECISION MAKING Amberton University 2/16/2013 . Submitted By: Rajat Shrestha Amberton University The decision making process can sometimes be a difficult one. There are many factors that may go into phd thesis management, the process of wallpaper decision making. Some of these factors may include who will be affected by the decision, how will they be affected, and is the decision ethical. Many times it is not easy to know what is considered ethical or. Decision making , Decision making software , Decision theory 1323 Words | 4 Pages.
MAURICE A. Phd Thesis Waste Management. MCKOY TRIDENT UNIVERSITY CASE STUDY 2 Case Study Business Ethics In the past there have been several cases in the business . environment related to the practices of accountants and auditors who have violated the research paper rubrics trust and confidence of public. A number of researches have been conducted to find the potential factors resulting in waste unethical, biased or inappropriate decision making and judgments by the professionals. Research Paper Rubrics 6th Grade. The aim of this paper is to review two academic articles and conclude. Accountancy , Accountant , Applied ethics 963 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ethics Essay Ethics Essay In life one must deal with moral and ethical dilemmas. “ Ethics is phd thesis management, defined . as the discipline dealing with what is rubrics essay, good and waste bad and with moral obligation” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2013). It studies human moral behavior and how one should act. Ethics helps to night, explain how a person should feel about a particular situation.
There are several groups of studies of phd thesis waste management ethics that defend and recommend concepts of right and phd thesis radiology wrong. The focus of this paper will be to. Consequentialism , Deontological ethics , Ethics 737 Words | 3 Pages. CARE ETHICS (The Ethics of Care) A Presentation of the Northeast Ethics Education Partnership and Ethical . Awareness for International Collaboration, Brown University, 2012 Introduction • Care ethics [The ethics of care] originated among feminists who maintained, on the basis of Carol Gilligan’s work, A Different Voice , that women and girls approach moral issues with a strong concern for phd thesis waste empathy and caring in rubrics interpersonal relationships. Care and Virtues • Care ethics focuses on virtues. Autonomy , Emotion , Ethics 1179 Words | 6 Pages. Ethics and phd thesis management Morality Marian Agbabokha Walden University Last week’s . foundation course, exposed me to research paper 6th grade, a lot of issues regarding my profession as an election officer, it gave me food for phd thesis waste thought. As a scholar and student of public policy and administration, what kind of responsibilities will this course place in my care, based on the information I would have gathered and assimilated, that I would have to pass on to those in my work. Aesthetics , Aristotle , Ethics 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics and Morality Nedra Dennis Ethics 316 Sept. 16,2012 Cramela David . Ethics and Morality Explain the difference between ethics and morality.
Define two ethical theories introduces in this course along with their proponents and the major criticisms of the theory. Ethics are the principles of conduct governing an individual or group and morals are our personal character. John was 32 when he died from asbestos, he was working at a corporation when. Business ethics , Deontological ethics , Ethics 798 Words | 3 Pages. governing medical ethics ,” reflects their social responsibility and commitment to America’s health care industry (American Medical Association, . 1995-2013). The American Medical Association is an organization that bases its philosophies on twelfth night on disguise, core values and waste a strong code of ethics . The goal of the AMA is to chapter, improve the healthcare industry for patients and medical professionals while developing acceptable ethical behavior. Phd Thesis. This paper will analyze the relationship between the AMA’s code of ethics and core values. Ethics , Health , Health care 738 Words | 5 Pages.
the company acting as moral agent 4 3-2 Analyze the development of mechanisms for achieving employee involvement and and other essays chapter empowerment 4 4-1 Research a current . ethical issue affecting a selected business 6 4-2 Report on how the business could improve the ethics of their operations whilst meeting objectives and phd thesis waste management ensuring good employer / employee relationship 6 4-3 Design a suitable ethical code 7 Conclusion 8 References 9 Acknowledgement This report is about the ethical approaches and practices are adopted. Applied ethics , Business , Business ethics 1886 Words | 9 Pages. the outcome or consequences. Therefore, Arjuna is a warrior at war, because of this he must always fight when directed to fight regardless of the princeton supplement 2012 . Phd Thesis Management. consequences. I’m not completely sure how you compare or relate Krishna’s advice to care ethics because to me care ethics is not shown even in the slightest by Krishna.
For me to say I would definitely fight the war would be wrong. For me to say that I would definitely withdraw would be wrong. Radiology. Frankly, I have no clue how I would act or what I would do on. Decision making , Decision theory , Ethics 1850 Words | 5 Pages. Ethics and Business Yunfeng Zhao California State Polytechnic University, Pomona . Ethics and Business Overview A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an phd thesis waste organism which been using genetic engineering techniques, and Monsanto is a publicly agricultural biotechnology company. Monsanto has a huge influence on GMO products. Unfortunately, Monsanto is not. Bacillus thuringiensis , Deontological ethics , Ethics 985 Words | 3 Pages. Situation 1: Adapted from WAFBLA “Everyone Else Does It!” Ethics Project You have been struggling in your Engineering Models class. The . content does not come easily, so you have put in countless hours to understand and do the research rubrics assignments.
There is management, another student who breezes through the research paper 6th grade assignments, getting high marks for the work he turns in. You know for a fact that he has used his college-aged cousin to do some of the phd thesis waste management assignments for paper rubrics him. You don’t know how many assignments were turned in this. Air traffic control , Computer software , Ethics 1415 Words | 4 Pages. Ethics The Point was founded on the idea of waste serving the greater good; therefore it is no surprise that most of the on disguise same principles of social . responsibility have found their way into Groupon’s core values, as well. Groupon’s roots in social activism and phd thesis waste management its desire to wallpaper for sale in south, support local causes are initiated through the “G-Team,” a collective group of waste subscribers and staff who run large-scale campaigns to support the community that can include anything from a flash mob to fundraiser. They raised millions.
Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility , Culture 821 Words | 3 Pages. benefits associated with globalization. Supplement 2012. The case highlights the managerial capabilities and style of the phd thesis management Manager, Tom Chong; the cultural variations in the . perception of essay 2012 business as an entity and its relationships with society, employee attitude to work ethics , and legal variables governing the phd thesis waste operations of international corporations. The Malaysian system poses a socio-ethical dilemma especially with the giving and receipts of bribes by appointed employees as well as the exchange of favors (or request. Case analysis , Case study , Code of conduct 908 Words | 2 Pages. Ethics and phd thesis Cultural Diversity Sensitivity Seminar Marsha F. Ward CJA/484 November 19, 2012 Robert Metzger, M.A. . Ethics and Cultural Diversity Sensitivity Seminar Every two months in any major police department across the country police officers attend an ethics and waste cultural diversity sensitivity seminar.
The seminar brings the officers up-to-date on ethics , and cultural diversity issues brought to the management’s attention along with future information. The ethics and cultural. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 1657 Words | 6 Pages. social sciences and in south africa humanities. Many ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by phd thesis, 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by anthropologists . examining music as an aspect of twelfth essay on disguise a culture. A well-known example of such work is Colin Turnbull's study of the phd thesis waste Mbuti pygmies. Another example is Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who ended up learning much about the music of the radiology Indians of Northern California . Yet another is Anthony Seeger, professor at waste management the University of California, Los Angeles, who. Anthropology , Community building , Ethnomusicology 1424 Words | 5 Pages.
? Q1. Explain how utilitarian might prove a defence for Roche and the aims essays chapter 1 how a rights-based ethic might instead condemn Roche’s drug trails in China. . A. According to the Utilitarian Ethics point of phd thesis management view that support the benefits of greater number of rubrics people compare to the loss of fewer people or supports the idea that gives happiness to the majority. As far as this case is considered utilitarian does support Roche’s drug tests on transplant patient because the test helps the company to create medicines like. Bioethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1433 Words | 3 Pages. collected from 345 business manager participating in executive MBA programs in selected schools across India, Korea and the United States looked at phd thesis management the . Rubrics In English Essay. relation between Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions and the attitude of individuals toward business ethics in general and phd thesis waste toward twelve common questionable practices in particular. It concluded that there existed strong relationship between cultural dimensions of individualism and power distance and ethical attitudes of business managers toward certain.
Applied ethics , Business ethics , Descriptive ethics 985 Words | 4 Pages.
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Essays on health: how food companies can sneak bias into waste management scientific research. Chair professor, University of Sydney. In the last 5 years, Lisa Bero has received research funding from the California Breast Cancer Research Program, The Cochrane Collaboration Methods Innovation Fund, US Office of Research Integrity, and the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. She is Co-Chair, Cochrane Governing Board since 2013 and essay receives remuneration that is paid to the University of Sydney. University of Sydney provides funding as a member of The Conversation AU. The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Republish our articles for free, online or in phd thesis management, print, under Creative Commons licence. This is the first in our occasional series of phd thesis radiology longer reads titled, Essays on health. Enjoy!
Should we eat breakfast every day? How much dairy should we have? Should we use artificial sweeteners to replace sugar? If we had the answers to phd thesis, these questions, we could address some of today’s biggest public health problems such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity. Consumer choice is often guided by recommendations about rubrics in english essay, what we should eat, and these recommendations also play a role in the food that’s available for us. Waste Management. Recommendations take the form of paper 6th grade dietary guidelines, food companies’ health claims, and clinical advice. But there’s a problem.
Recommendations are often conflicting and phd thesis management the source of advice not always transparent. In September, a JAMA Internal Medicine study revealed that in the 1960s, the sugar industry paid scientists at Harvard University to minimise the link between sugar and heart disease. The historical papers the study was based on showed researchers were paid to shift the blame from sugar to supplement essay 2012, fat as responsible for the heart disease epidemic. The paper’s authors suggested many of today’s dietary recommendations may have been largely shaped by the sugar industry. And some experts have since questioned whether such misinformation can have led to today’s obesity crisis. We’d like to think industry influence of this scale won’t happen again.
We’d like to have enough systems in place to shine a spotlight on any potential bias, or risk of it, as soon as it happens. But the reason it took so long to expose the sugar industry’s tactics is bias can be well hidden. To avoid the potentially huge ramifications, we need much better systems in place when it comes to management, nutrition research. Partnerships between industry and research institutions aren’t uncommon. from shutterstock.com. How are national guidelines put together? Governments issue national dietary guidelines to inform people’s food choices and the nation’s food policies. To be credible and scientifically sound, they should obviously be built on rigorous evidence.
Best practice for creating guidelines includes beginning the the aims of education and other essays chapter, process with a systematic review, which is waste management a study that identifies all the available evidence on a particular research question. This ensures studies favourable to a particular party can’t be cherry-picked. Twelfth Essay On Disguise. But systematic reviews are only phd thesis management, as valid as the studies out there. An important part of of education essays any systematic review is to evaluate the biases in the studies included. Public health dietary guidelines and phd thesis waste policies are influenced by phd thesis radiology, political, economic and social factors. That’s inescapable. Phd Thesis Waste. But if the evidence on which these decisions are based is flawed, the entire foundation for systematic reviews, guidelines and policy, crumbles. So identifying and minimising bias in each part of the research process – from the researcher’s decision on which question to answer in the study, to the publication of the results – is essential to having a strong evidence base.
Bias in research is the phd thesis, systematic error or deviation from true results or inferences of a study. Pharmaceutical, tobacco or chemical industry funding of research biases human studies towards outcomes favourable to the sponsor. Even when studies use similar rigorous methods – such as keeping study information away from participants (blinding) or removing selection bias between groups of patients (randomisation) – studies sponsored by a drug’s manufacturer are more likely to find the drug is more effective or less harmful than a placebo or other drugs. This bias in pharmaceutical industry sponsored studies is just like the sugar industry sponsored studies that downplayed sugar’s link to heart disease while putting the blame on fat. Tobacco industry-funded studies are more likely to find that tobacco is not harmful compared to studies with other sponsors. HOW HWEE YOUNG/AAP. Financial conflicts of management interest between researchers and wallpaper africa industry have also been associated with research outcomes that favour companies researchers are affiliated with. So how does this happen?
How can industry-funded studies use methods similar to non-industry funded studies but have different results? Because bias can be introduced in several ways, such as in phd thesis waste, the research agenda itself, the way research questions are asked, how the studies are conducted behind the scenes, and the publication of the studies. Industry influences on these other sources of bias in research often remains hidden for decades. It took over 40 years to show how the tobacco industry undermined the research agenda on the health effects of secondhand smoke. It did this by funding “distracting” research through The Center for phd thesis, Indoor Air Research, which three tobacco companies created and funded. Throughout the 1990s, this centre funded dozens of research projects that suggested components of phd thesis management indoor air, such as carpet off-gases or dirty air filters, were more harmful than tobacco. The centre did not fund research on secondhand smoke. There is a high risk of wallpaper in south africa bias when the methodology of the study (how the phd thesis waste management, study is phd thesis radiology designed) leads to an error when assessing the phd thesis management, magnitude or direction of results.
Clinical trials with a high risk of methodological bias (such as those lacking randomisation or blinding) are more likely to exaggerate the efficacy of drugs and the aims of education and other underestimate their harms. A 2007 paper that compared over 500 studies found those funded by phd thesis waste, pharmaceutical companies were half as likely to radiology, report negative effects of corticosteroid drugs (used to treat allergies and phd thesis waste asthma) than those not funded by pharmaceutical companies. Many industry-sponsored studies of drugs are conducted for regulatory approval and the regulators require certain methodological standards. The Aims Of Education And Other Essays 1. So often, the design of industry-sponsored studies is pretty good and phd thesis waste management the bias is in south africa elsewhere. It can be in phd thesis, how the questions are framed or another common form: publication bias. Clinical trials with a high risk of methodological bias are more likely to exaggerate the efficacy of drugs and underestimate their harms. shutterstock.com. Publication bias occurs when entire research studies are not published, or only selected results from the studies are published. It is a common myth publication bias comes about because scientific journal editors reject studies that don’t support the princeton supplement essay 2012, hypothesis or question the studies were asking. These are called negative or statistically non-significant studies.
But negative research is phd thesis as likely to get published as positive research. So it’s not that. Analysis of internal pharmaceutical industry documents from 1994 to 1998 shows the pharmaceutical industry had a deliberate strategy to suppress publication of sponsored research unfavourable to its products. Industry-funded investigators were not allowed to publish negative research that did not support the in south, efficacy or safety of the drugs being tested. This has contributed to a clinical literature dominated by phd thesis waste management, studies demonstrating the and other chapter, efficacy or safety of drugs. The tobacco industry also has a history of phd thesis stopping the publication of research rubrics 6th grade research it funded if the findings didn’t lean in favour of tobacco products. Previous research on phd thesis management, bias in of education essays chapter 1, tobacco, pharmaceutical, and other industry-sponsored research is phd thesis waste management relevant here because the biases that affect research outcomes are the same, regardless of the exposure or intervention being studied. Phd Thesis. When it comes to nutrition research, we actually know little about how corporate sponsorship or conflicts of phd thesis management interest might bias the research agenda, design, outcomes and reporting.
Industry influence on nutrition research. The credibility of nutrition research has come under attack because the funding source is often not transparent and industry-funded research affects food policy. But we actually know very little about how sponsorship biases nutrition research. Our systematic review, published this week in africa, JAMA Internal Medicine, identified and evaluated all studies that assessed the phd thesis, association between food industry sponsorship and published outcomes of nutrition studies. We were surprised to find few studies examining the effects of industry sponsorship on princeton supplement 2012, the actual, numerical findings of the studies. Waste. Only two of 12 studies assessed the association between food-industry sponsorship and the statistical significance of research results, and neither found a link. We know very little about the association between industry sponsorship or authors’ conflicts of interest and the results of nutrition research.
Jordan Whitfield/Unsplash, CC BY. Only one paper found studies sponsored by the food industry reported significantly smaller harmful effects of consuming soft drinks than those without industry sponsorship. Phd Thesis. Overall, our review showed we know very little about the association between industry sponsorship or authors’ conflicts of interest and the actual results of management nutrition research. More studies assessed the association of industry sponsorship with authors’ conclusions or interpretations of their findings (not the results). Eight reports, when taken together, found industry sponsored studies had a 31% increase in risk, compared to non-industry sponsored studies, of having a conclusion favouring the sponsor’s product. So what we know is essay on disguise that food industry sponsorship is associated with researchers interpreting their findings to favour the waste management, sponsor’s products. Conclusions don’t always agree with results but can be spun to essays, make readers’ interpretations more favourable.
For example, a study might find that a particular diet leads to weight loss and an increase in phd thesis, heart disease but the harmful effects of heart disease are omitted from the conclusion. Only the weight loss is mentioned. This spin on conclusions is a tactic in the aims and other, other industries and phd thesis management can influence how research is interpreted. But it is the results (the research data) that really matters. From the standpoint of developing systematic reviews and night on disguise evidence-based recommendations, the results are more important than conclusions because only the data, and not a researchers interpretation of them, are included in the reviews. We need more rigorous investigation of the effects of industry sponsorship on the results of both primary nutrition studies and reviews.
For example, our recent study examined 31 reviews of the effects of artificial sweeteners on weight loss. We found reviews funded by artificial sweetener companies were about 17 times as likely to have statistically significant results showing artificial sweeteners use is phd thesis associated with weight loss, compared to reviews with other sponsors. Our studies mentioned above didn’t identify any differences in the quality of industry-sponsored and twelfth night non-industry sponsored nutrition research. But, similar to research sponsored by the pharmaceutical or tobacco industries, sponsors could affect outcomes by setting the research agenda, framing the questions or influencing publication. There is phd thesis a lack of transparency about funding sources and conflicts of interest in the area of nutrition research. from shutterstock.com. A research agenda focused on single ingredients (such as sugar) or foods (such as nuts) rather than their interactions or dietary patterns may favour food-industry interests. This is because it may provide a platform to market a certain type of food or processed foods containing or lacking specific ingredients, such as sugar-free drinks.
Most data sources used to study publication bias in other research areas are not available for nutrition research, which make it more difficult to detect. Researchers have identified publication bias in pharmaceutical and tobacco research by comparing the full reports of drug studies submitted to on disguise, regulatory agencies with publications in the scientific literature. Researchers have also compared data released in legal settlements with published research articles. There are no similar regulatory databases for foods or dietary products. It is possible to use statistical methods to estimate publication bias in large samples of nutrition research, as in other research areas. Interviewing industry-funded researchers could be another way to waste, identify publication bias.
Another obstacle to phd thesis radiology, rigorously assessing bias in nutrition research is the lack of transparency about funding sources and phd thesis waste management conflicts of interest. Our review of artificial-sweetener studies found authors of 42% of them had conflicts of interest not disclosed in the published article. Also, about one third of the reviews didn’t disclose their funding sources. Although disclosure in journals is twelfth on disguise improving over time, not all journals enforce disclosure guidelines for phd thesis management, author conflicts of interest and research funding sources. Reducing bias in nutrition research. Studies on research bias related to pharmaceutical and tobacco industry sponsorship and conflicts of interest has led to international reforms. These have been in the area of government requirements for research transparency and data accessibility, stricter journal and university standards for managing conflicts of interest, and methodological standards for the aims of education and other 1, critiquing and reporting evidence (and conducting systematic reviews). Similar reforms are needed in nutrition research.
Further studies will determine which mechanisms to reduce bias should be urgently implemented for nutrition research. Options include: refined methods for evaluating studies used in systematic reviews. enforced policies for disclosing, managing or eliminating financial conflicts of interest across all nutrition-related journals and professional associations. mechanisms to reduce publication bias, such as study registries that describe the methods of ongoing studies, or providing open access data. revised research agendas to address neglected topics and to produce studies relevant to population health, without corporate sponsors driving the agenda. independent sources of phd thesis management funding for nutrition research, or, at radiology a minimum, industry sources pooling their funding with research funds administered by an independent party. In the current economic climate, in which industry funding is encouraged by waste management, universities, studying bias is princeton essay 2012 important and contentious research. Research institutions should implement strategies that reduce the risk of bias when industry sponsors research. They could do this by a risk-benefit assessment for accepting industry sponsorship of research.
This would evaluate the management, sponsor’s control of the design, conduct and 2012 publication of the research, as well as any risk to phd thesis, the institution’s reputation. The full effects of industry sponsorship and twelfth essay financial conflicts of interest on nutrition research remain hidden. Waste. An evidence base as rigorous and extensive as the the one on essay, bias in pharmaceutical and tobacco research is needed to illuminate how nutrition research is at risk of bias.