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How Did Economists Get It So Wrong? I. Thesis Themen? MISTAKING BEAUTY FOR TRUTH. It’s hard to believe now, but not long ago economists were congratulating themselves over the success of their field. Essays? Those successes — or so they believed — were both theoretical and practical, leading to a golden era for themen, the profession. On the theoretical side, they thought that they had resolved their internal disputes. Thus, in a 2008 paper titled “The State of case of depression Macro” (that is, macroeconomics, the study of big-picture issues like recessions), Olivier Blanchard of M.I.T., now the chief economist at thesis themen, the International Monetary Fund, declared that “the state of macro is good.” The battles of yesteryear, he said, were over, and pharmacy essay, there had been a “broad convergence of thesis themen vision.” And in the real world, economists believed they had things under control: the “central problem of depression-prevention has been solved,” declared Robert Lucas of the women, University of Chicago in his 2003 presidential address to the American Economic Association. In 2004, Ben Bernanke, a former Princeton professor who is now the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, celebrated the Great Moderation in economic performance over the previous two decades, which he attributed in part to finance improved economic policy making. Last year, everything came apart. Few economists saw our current crisis coming, but this predictive failure was the least of the field’s problems. More important was the profession’s blindness to the very possibility of catastrophic failures in a market economy.

During the golden years, financial economists came to believe that markets were inherently stable — indeed, that stocks and other assets were always priced just right. Bilogy? There was nothing in the prevailing models suggesting the possibility of the kind of thesis collapse that happened last year. Meanwhile, macroeconomists were divided in their views. But the main division was between those who insisted that free-market economies never go astray and those who believed that economies may stray now and family reviews, then but that any major deviations from the path of thesis themen prosperity could and women essays, would be corrected by the all-powerful Fed. Neither side was prepared to thesis themen cope with an of movies, economy that went off the rails despite the Fed’s best efforts. And in the wake of the crisis, the fault lines in the economics profession have yawned wider than ever.

Lucas says the Obama administration’s stimulus plans are “schlock economics,” and thesis themen, his Chicago colleague John Cochrane says they’re based on debate, discredited “fairy tales.” In response, Brad DeLong of the themen, University of California, Berkeley, writes of the “intellectual collapse” of the Chicago School, and I myself have written that comments from Chicago economists are the product of a Dark Age of macroeconomics in which hard-won knowledge has been forgotten. What happened to the economics profession? And where does it go from here? As I see it, the economics profession went astray because economists, as a group, mistook beauty, clad in impressive-looking mathematics, for truth. Until the Great Depression, most economists clung to a vision of capitalism as a perfect or nearly perfect system. That vision wasn’t sustainable in the face of mass unemployment, but as memories of the essay, Depression faded, economists fell back in love with the themen, old, idealized vision of an economy in women essays which rational individuals interact in thesis themen perfect markets, this time gussied up with fancy equations. Pharmacy Entrance? The renewed romance with the idealized market was, to be sure, partly a response to shifting political winds, partly a response to financial incentives. But while sabbaticals at the Hoover Institution and job opportunities on Wall Street are nothing to sneeze at, the central cause of the profession’s failure was the desire for an all-encompassing, intellectually elegant approach that also gave economists a chance to show off their mathematical prowess. Unfortunately, this romanticized and sanitized vision of the economy led most economists to themen ignore all the things that can go wrong.

They turned a blind eye to the limitations of case study in adolescence human rationality that often lead to bubbles and busts; to themen finance the problems of essay institutions that run amok; to the imperfections of markets — especially financial markets — that can cause the economy’s operating system to undergo sudden, unpredictable crashes; and to the dangers created when regulators don’t believe in regulation. It’s much harder to say where the economics profession goes from here. But what’s almost certain is that economists will have to learn to live with messiness. Thesis Themen Finance? That is, they will have to of depression acknowledge the importance of irrational and often unpredictable behavior, face up to the often idiosyncratic imperfections of markets and accept that an elegant economic “theory of thesis themen everything” is a long way off. In practical terms, this will translate into entrance more cautious policy advice — and thesis themen finance, a reduced willingness to dismantle economic safeguards in the faith that markets will solve all problems. II. FROM SMITH TO KEYNES AND BACK. The birth of family reviews of movies economics as a discipline is themen, usually credited to Adam Smith, who published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776. Over the next 160 years an extensive body of economic theory was developed, whose central message was: Trust the market.

Yes, economists admitted that there were cases in gun control which markets might fail, of thesis themen finance which the most important was the case of women in leadership “externalities” — costs that people impose on others without paying the price, like traffic congestion or pollution. But the basic presumption of “neoclassical” economics (named after the late-19th-century theorists who elaborated on the concepts of their “classical” predecessors) was that we should have faith in the market system. This faith was, however, shattered by the Great Depression. Actually, even in the face of total collapse some economists insisted that whatever happens in a market economy must be right: “Depressions are not simply evils,” declared Joseph Schumpeter in thesis themen finance 1934 — 1934! They are, he added, “forms of something which has to be done.” But many, and eventually most, economists turned to essay debate the insights of John Maynard Keynes for both an explanation of what had happened and a solution to future depressions. Keynes did not, despite what you may have heard, want the government to finance run the entrance, economy. He described his analysis in thesis finance his 1936 masterwork, “The General Theory of pharmacy Employment, Interest and Money,” as “moderately conservative in thesis themen finance its implications.” He wanted to essays fix capitalism, not replace it. But he did challenge the notion that free-market economies can function without a minder, expressing particular contempt for financial markets, which he viewed as being dominated by short-term speculation with little regard for fundamentals.

And he called for active government intervention — printing more money and, if necessary, spending heavily on public works — to fight unemployment during slumps. It’s important to understand that Keynes did much more than make bold assertions. “The General Theory” is a work of profound, deep analysis — analysis that persuaded the best young economists of the day. Yet the story of economics over the past half century is, to a large degree, the story of a retreat from Keynesianism and a return to neoclassicism. The neoclassical revival was initially led by Milton Friedman of the University of Chicago, who asserted as early as 1953 that neoclassical economics works well enough as a description of the way the economy actually functions to be “both extremely fruitful and deserving of much confidence.” But what about depressions? Friedman’s counterattack against Keynes began with the doctrine known as monetarism. Monetarists didn’t disagree in principle with the idea that a market economy needs deliberate stabilization. “We are all Keynesians now,” Friedman once said, although he later claimed he was quoted out of themen context. Monetarists asserted, however, that a very limited, circumscribed form of government intervention — namely, instructing central banks to keep the nation’s money supply, the sum of cash in circulation and bank deposits, growing on a steady path — is all that’s required to prevent depressions.

Famously, Friedman and his collaborator, Anna Schwartz, argued that if the Federal Reserve had done its job properly, the Great Depression would not have happened. Later, Friedman made a compelling case against any deliberate effort by government to push unemployment below its “natural” level (currently thought to be about 4.8 percent in the United States): excessively expansionary policies, he predicted, would lead to a combination of inflation and high unemployment — a prediction that was borne out by the stagflation of the 1970s, which greatly advanced the credibility of the anti-Keynesian movement. Eventually, however, the anti-Keynesian counterrevolution went far beyond Friedman’s position, which came to seem relatively moderate compared with what his successors were saying. Among financial economists, Keynes’s disparaging vision of financial markets as a “casino” was replaced by term paper “efficient market” theory, which asserted that financial markets always get asset prices right given the available information. Meanwhile, many macroeconomists completely rejected Keynes’s framework for understanding economic slumps. Some returned to the view of Schumpeter and other apologists for the Great Depression, viewing recessions as a good thing, part of the economy’s adjustment to change.

And even those not willing to go that far argued that any attempt to fight an economic slump would do more harm than good. Not all macroeconomists were willing to go down this road: many became self-described New Keynesians, who continued to thesis finance believe in an active role for reviews of movies, the government. Yet even they mostly accepted the notion that investors and consumers are rational and finance, that markets generally get it right. Of course, there were exceptions to these trends: a few economists challenged the essay, assumption of rational behavior, questioned the finance, belief that financial markets can be trusted and women, pointed to thesis themen the long history of financial crises that had devastating economic consequences. But they were swimming against the tide, unable to make much headway against a pervasive and, in in adolescence retrospect, foolish complacency. In the 1930s, financial markets, for obvious reasons, didn’t get much respect. Keynes compared them to finance “those newspaper competitions in which the competitors have to pick out the six prettiest faces from a hundred photographs, the prize being awarded to the competitor whose choice most nearly corresponds to the average preferences of the competitors as a whole; so that each competitor has to pick, not those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the in leadership, other competitors.” And Keynes considered it a very bad idea to thesis themen let such markets, in which speculators spent their time chasing one another’s tails, dictate important business decisions: “When the capital development of a country becomes a by-product of the activities of case study of depression a casino, the job is likely to be ill-done.” By 1970 or so, however, the study of financial markets seemed to have been taken over by Voltaire’s Dr.

Pangloss, who insisted that we live in the best of all possible worlds. Discussion of investor irrationality, of bubbles, of destructive speculation had virtually disappeared from academic discourse. Thesis? The field was dominated by the “efficient-market hypothesis,” promulgated by Eugene Fama of the University of Chicago, which claims that financial markets price assets precisely at their intrinsic worth given all publicly available information. Essay? (The price of a company’s stock, for thesis, example, always accurately reflects the gun control debate, company’s value given the information available on the company’s earnings, its business prospects and so on.) And by the 1980s, finance economists, notably Michael Jensen of the Harvard Business School, were arguing that because financial markets always get prices right, the themen finance, best thing corporate chieftains can do, not just for themselves but for the sake of the economy, is to maximize their stock prices. In other words, finance economists believed that we should put the capital development of the nation in essays the hands of what Keynes had called a “casino.” It’s hard to argue that this transformation in the profession was driven by events. Thesis Themen Finance? True, the memory of 1929 was gradually receding, but there continued to be bull markets, with widespread tales of speculative excess, followed by bear markets. Pharmacy Essay? In 1973-4, for example, stocks lost 48 percent of their value.

And the 1987 stock crash, in which the Dow plunged nearly 23 percent in a day for no clear reason, should have raised at least a few doubts about market rationality. These events, however, which Keynes would have considered evidence of the unreliability of markets, did little to blunt the force of a beautiful idea. The theoretical model that finance economists developed by themen finance assuming that every investor rationally balances risk against reviews of movies reward — the themen, so-called Capital Asset Pricing Model, or CAPM (pronounced cap-em) — is wonderfully elegant. And if you accept its premises it’s also extremely useful. CAPM not only tells you how to choose your portfolio — even more important from the gun control, financial industry’s point of finance view, it tells you how to put a price on financial derivatives, claims on claims. The elegance and apparent usefulness of the new theory led to a string of Nobel prizes for its creators, and many of the theory’s adepts also received more mundane rewards: Armed with their new models and pharmacy essay, formidable math skills — the themen finance, more arcane uses of CAPM require physicist-level computations — mild-mannered business-school professors could and did become Wall Street rocket scientists, earning Wall Street paychecks. To be fair, finance theorists didn’t accept the efficient-market hypothesis merely because it was elegant, convenient and lucrative. They also produced a great deal of statistical evidence, which at first seemed strongly supportive. But this evidence was of an oddly limited form. In Leadership? Finance economists rarely asked the seemingly obvious (though not easily answered) question of whether asset prices made sense given real-world fundamentals like earnings.

Instead, they asked only whether asset prices made sense given other asset prices. Thesis? Larry Summers, now the top economic adviser in the Obama administration, once mocked finance professors with a parable about “ketchup economists” who “have shown that two-quart bottles of ketchup invariably sell for exactly twice as much as one-quart bottles of ketchup,” and conclude from this that the ketchup market is perfectly efficient. But neither this mockery nor more polite critiques from entrance economists like Robert Shiller of Yale had much effect. Finance theorists continued to believe that their models were essentially right, and so did many people making real-world decisions. Not least among these was Alan Greenspan, who was then the Fed chairman and thesis themen finance, a long-time supporter of financial deregulation whose rejection of calls to rein in subprime lending or address the ever-inflating housing bubble rested in large part on the belief that modern financial economics had everything under control. There was a telling moment in energy paper 2005, at a conference held to honor Greenspan’s tenure at the Fed. One brave attendee, Raghuram Rajan (of the University of Chicago, surprisingly), presented a paper warning that the finance, financial system was taking on potentially dangerous levels of risk. He was mocked by almost all present — including, by the way, Larry Summers, who dismissed his warnings as “misguided.” By October of last year, however, Greenspan was admitting that he was in essay debate a state of “shocked disbelief,” because “the whole intellectual edifice” had “collapsed.” Since this collapse of the intellectual edifice was also a collapse of real-world markets, the result was a severe recession — the worst, by many measures, since the Great Depression. What should policy makers do?

Unfortunately, macroeconomics, which should have been providing clear guidance about thesis themen how to address the slumping economy, was in the glass carson its own state of disarray. “We have involved ourselves in a colossal muddle, having blundered in the control of a delicate machine, the thesis themen finance, working of case of depression in adolescence which we do not understand. Themen? The result is that our possibilities of wealth may run to essay carson waste for a time — perhaps for themen finance, a long time.” So wrote John Maynard Keynes in an essay titled “The Great Slump of 1930,” in which he tried to the glass essay explain the catastrophe then overtaking the thesis finance, world. And the world’s possibilities of wealth did indeed run to waste for a long time; it took World War II to bring the Great Depression to a definitive end. Why was Keynes’s diagnosis of the Great Depression as a “colossal muddle” so compelling at case in adolescence, first? And why did economics, circa 1975, divide into opposing camps over the value of Keynes’s views? I like to thesis explain the essence of Keynesian economics with a true story that also serves as a parable, a small-scale version of the messes that can afflict entire economies. Consider the of movies, travails of the Capitol Hill Baby-Sitting Co-op. This co-op, whose problems were recounted in a 1977 article in The Journal of finance Money, Credit and Banking, was an association of about 150 young couples who agreed to help one another by by anne baby-sitting for one another’s children when parents wanted a night out.

To ensure that every couple did its fair share of baby-sitting, the thesis themen finance, co-op introduced a form of scrip: coupons made out of heavy pieces of paper, each entitling the essay carson, bearer to one half-hour of sitting time. Initially, members received 20 coupons on joining and thesis themen finance, were required to return the same amount on bilogy, departing the group. Unfortunately, it turned out that the themen finance, co-op’s members, on average, wanted to hold a reserve of paper more than 20 coupons, perhaps, in case they should want to go out several times in a row. As a result, relatively few people wanted to spend their scrip and go out, while many wanted to baby-sit so they could add to thesis finance their hoard. But since baby-sitting opportunities arise only case study in adolescence when someone goes out for the night, this meant that baby-sitting jobs were hard to find, which made members of the co-op even more reluctant to go out, making baby-sitting jobs even scarcer. . Themen Finance? . . In short, the co-op fell into a recession. O.K., what do you think of this story? Don’t dismiss it as silly and trivial: economists have used small-scale examples to shed light on entrance, big questions ever since Adam Smith saw the roots of economic progress in a pin factory, and they’re right to do so. The question is whether this particular example, in which a recession is thesis themen finance, a problem of inadequate demand — there isn’t enough demand for baby-sitting to provide jobs for everyone who wants one — gets at the essence of what happens in a recession. Forty years ago most economists would have agreed with this interpretation. But since then macroeconomics has divided into energy bilogy two great factions: “saltwater” economists (mainly in coastal U.S. Finance? universities), who have a more or less Keynesian vision of what recessions are all about; and “freshwater” economists (mainly at inland schools), who consider that vision nonsense. Freshwater economists are, essentially, neoclassical purists.

They believe that all worthwhile economic analysis starts from the premise that people are rational and essay by anne, markets work, a premise violated by finance the story of the baby-sitting co-op. As they see it, a general lack of sufficient demand isn’t possible, because prices always move to match supply with demand. If people want more baby-sitting coupons, the value of those coupons will rise, so that they’re worth, say, 40 minutes of baby-sitting rather than half an hour — or, equivalently, the women, cost of an hours’ baby-sitting would fall from 2 coupons to themen finance 1.5. And that would solve the problem: the purchasing power of the coupons in circulation would have risen, so that people would feel no need to hoard more, and there would be no recession. But don’t recessions look like periods in which there just isn’t enough demand to pharmacy essay employ everyone willing to work? Appearances can be deceiving, say the freshwater theorists. Thesis Themen? Sound economics, in their view, says that overall failures of demand can’t happen — and that means that they don’t.

Keynesian economics has been “proved false,” Cochrane, of the gun control debate, University of themen finance Chicago, says. Yet recessions do happen. Why? In the debate, 1970s the leading freshwater macroeconomist, the Nobel laureate Robert Lucas, argued that recessions were caused by finance temporary confusion: workers and companies had trouble distinguishing overall changes in the level of prices because of inflation or deflation from changes in their own particular business situation. And Lucas warned that any attempt to fight the business cycle would be counterproductive: activist policies, he argued, would just add to the confusion. By the case study of depression in adolescence, 1980s, however, even this severely limited acceptance of the idea that recessions are bad things had been rejected by many freshwater economists. Instead, the new leaders of the movement, especially Edward Prescott, who was then at the University of Minnesota (you can see where the freshwater moniker comes from), argued that price fluctuations and changes in demand actually had nothing to do with the business cycle. Rather, the business cycle reflects fluctuations in the rate of finance technological progress, which are amplified by pharmacy essay the rational response of workers, who voluntarily work more when the environment is favorable and less when it’s unfavorable. Thesis Finance? Unemployment is a deliberate decision by workers to gun control take time off. Put baldly like that, this theory sounds foolish — was the Great Depression really the thesis, Great Vacation?

And to be honest, I think it really is silly. But the basic premise of Prescott’s “real business cycle” theory was embedded in ingeniously constructed mathematical models, which were mapped onto the glass by anne carson real data using sophisticated statistical techniques, and the theory came to dominate the teaching of macroeconomics in many university departments. In 2004, reflecting the theory’s influence, Prescott shared a Nobel with Finn Kydland of Carnegie Mellon University. Meanwhile, saltwater economists balked. Where the freshwater economists were purists, saltwater economists were pragmatists. Themen Finance? While economists like N. Gregory Mankiw at gun control essay debate, Harvard, Olivier Blanchard at thesis themen finance, M.I.T. and David Romer at the University of California, Berkeley, acknowledged that it was hard to reconcile a Keynesian demand-side view of the glass by anne recessions with neoclassical theory, they found the evidence that recessions are, in fact, demand-driven too compelling to themen reject.

So they were willing to deviate from the assumption of perfect markets or perfect rationality, or both, adding enough imperfections to accommodate a more or less Keynesian view of recessions. And in the saltwater view, active policy to fight recessions remained desirable. But the self-described New Keynesian economists weren’t immune to the charms of rational individuals and perfect markets. They tried to keep their deviations from neoclassical orthodoxy as limited as possible. This meant that there was no room in the prevailing models for such things as bubbles and the glass essay, banking-system collapse. The fact that such things continued to happen in the real world — there was a terrible financial and macroeconomic crisis in much of Asia in 1997-8 and a depression-level slump in Argentina in 2002 — wasn’t reflected in thesis the mainstream of New Keynesian thinking. Even so, you might have thought that the differing worldviews of freshwater and saltwater economists would have put them constantly at loggerheads over economic policy. Somewhat surprisingly, however, between around 1985 and 2007 the disputes between freshwater and saltwater economists were mainly about theory, not action.

The reason, I believe, is that New Keynesians, unlike the original Keynesians, didn’t think fiscal policy — changes in entrance government spending or taxes — was needed to thesis themen fight recessions. They believed that monetary policy, administered by entrance the technocrats at the Fed, could provide whatever remedies the economy needed. At a 90th birthday celebration for Milton Friedman, Ben Bernanke, formerly a more or less New Keynesian professor at Princeton, and by then a member of the Fed’s governing board, declared of the Great Depression: “You’re right. We did it. We’re very sorry. Thesis Themen Finance? But thanks to of movies you, it won’t happen again.” The clear message was that all you need to thesis themen finance avoid depressions is a smarter Fed. And as long as macroeconomic policy was left in the hands of the maestro Greenspan, without Keynesian-type stimulus programs, freshwater economists found little to complain about. (They didn’t believe that monetary policy did any good, but they didn’t believe it did any harm, either.) An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.

It would take a crisis to pharmacy reveal both how little common ground there was and thesis themen finance, how Panglossian even New Keynesian economics had become. In recent, rueful economics discussions, an all-purpose punch line has become “nobody could have predicted. . . Essays? .” It’s what you say with regard to disasters that could have been predicted, should have been predicted and actually were predicted by a few economists who were scoffed at for their pains. Take, for example, the themen finance, precipitous rise and fall of housing prices. Some economists, notably Robert Shiller, did identify the bubble and warn of painful consequences if it were to burst. Gun Control Essay Debate? Yet key policy makers failed to thesis see the obvious. In 2004, Alan Greenspan dismissed talk of gun control a housing bubble: “a national severe price distortion,” he declared, was “most unlikely.” Home-price increases, Ben Bernanke said in 2005, “largely reflect strong economic fundamentals.” How did they miss the bubble? To be fair, interest rates were unusually low, possibly explaining part of the price rise. It may be that Greenspan and Bernanke also wanted to celebrate the Fed’s success in pulling the economy out of the 2001 recession; conceding that much of that success rested on the creation of thesis themen a monstrous bubble would have placed a damper on pharmacy, the festivities. But there was something else going on: a general belief that bubbles just don’t happen. Thesis Finance? What’s striking, when you reread Greenspan’s assurances, is that they weren’t based on evidence — they were based on the a priori assertion that there simply can’t be a bubble in housing.

And the finance theorists were even more adamant on this point. Paper? In a 2007 interview, Eugene Fama, the father of the efficient-market hypothesis, declared that “the word ‘bubble’ drives me nuts,” and went on themen, to explain why we can trust the housing market: “Housing markets are less liquid, but people are very careful when they buy houses. It’s typically the biggest investment they’re going to make, so they look around very carefully and study of depression, they compare prices. Thesis Themen? The bidding process is very detailed.” Indeed, home buyers generally do carefully compare prices — that is, they compare the price of pharmacy entrance essay their potential purchase with the themen, prices of other houses. Essays? But this says nothing about finance whether the gun control essay, overall price of houses is justified. It’s ketchup economics, again: because a two-quart bottle of ketchup costs twice as much as a one-quart bottle, finance theorists declare that the price of thesis themen finance ketchup must be right. In short, the belief in efficient financial markets blinded many if not most economists to the emergence of the biggest financial bubble in history.

And efficient-market theory also played a significant role in inflating that bubble in the first place. Now that the undiagnosed bubble has burst, the true riskiness of supposedly safe assets has been revealed and the financial system has demonstrated its fragility. Essay Debate? U.S. households have seen $13 trillion in wealth evaporate. More than six million jobs have been lost, and the unemployment rate appears headed for its highest level since 1940. So what guidance does modern economics have to offer in our current predicament? And should we trust it? Between 1985 and 2007 a false peace settled over the field of thesis themen finance macroeconomics. Women? There hadn’t been any real convergence of views between the saltwater and freshwater factions. But these were the years of the Great Moderation — an extended period during which inflation was subdued and recessions were relatively mild.

Saltwater economists believed that the Federal Reserve had everything under control. Fresh­water economists didn’t think the thesis finance, Fed’s actions were actually beneficial, but they were willing to let matters lie. But the crisis ended the phony peace. By Anne? Suddenly the thesis finance, narrow, technocratic policies both sides were willing to accept were no longer sufficient — and the need for a broader policy response brought the pharmacy essay, old conflicts out into the open, fiercer than ever. Why weren’t those narrow, technocratic policies sufficient? The answer, in a word, is zero. During a normal recession, the Fed responds by buying Treasury bills — short-term government debt — from banks. Thesis Themen? This drives interest rates on government debt down; investors seeking a higher rate of return move into other assets, driving other interest rates down as well; and family reviews, normally these lower interest rates eventually lead to an economic bounceback.

The Fed dealt with the recession that began in 1990 by driving short-term interest rates from 9 percent down to 3 percent. Thesis? It dealt with the the glass essay by anne carson, recession that began in themen finance 2001 by driving rates from 6.5 percent to 1 percent. And it tried to essay deal with the current recession by driving rates down from 5.25 percent to zero. But zero, it turned out, isn’t low enough to end this recession. And the Fed can’t push rates below zero, since at near-zero rates investors simply hoard cash rather than lending it out. So by late 2008, with interest rates basically at what macroeconomists call the “zero lower bound” even as the recession continued to deepen, conventional monetary policy had lost all traction. Now what? This is the thesis finance, second time America has been up against energy term paper the zero lower bound, the previous occasion being the themen finance, Great Depression. And it was precisely the entrance, observation that there’s a lower bound to thesis themen interest rates that led Keynes to advocate higher government spending: when monetary policy is ineffective and the private sector can’t be persuaded to the glass by anne carson spend more, the public sector must take its place in supporting the economy. Fiscal stimulus is the thesis themen finance, Keynesian answer to the kind of depression-type economic situation we’re currently in.

Such Keynesian thinking underlies the Obama administration’s economic policies — and the freshwater economists are furious. For 25 or so years they tolerated the study in adolescence, Fed’s efforts to manage the economy, but a full-blown Keynesian resurgence was something entirely different. Back in 1980, Lucas, of the University of Chicago, wrote that Keynesian economics was so ludicrous that “at research seminars, people don’t take Keynesian theorizing seriously anymore; the finance, audience starts to whisper and giggle to essay one another.” Admitting that Keynes was largely right, after all, would be too humiliating a comedown. And so Chicago’s Cochrane, outraged at the idea that government spending could mitigate the thesis themen finance, latest recession, declared: “It’s not part of in leadership what anybody has taught graduate students since the 1960s. They [Keynesian ideas] are fairy tales that have been proved false.

It is very comforting in times of stress to go back to the fairy tales we heard as children, but it doesn’t make them less false.” (It’s a mark of how deep the division between saltwater and freshwater runs that Cochrane doesn’t believe that “anybody” teaches ideas that are, in fact, taught in places like Princeton, M.I.T. and Harvard.) Meanwhile, saltwater economists, who had comforted themselves with the belief that the great divide in themen macroeconomics was narrowing, were shocked to realize that freshwater economists hadn’t been listening at all. Freshwater economists who inveighed against the stimulus didn’t sound like scholars who had weighed Keynesian arguments and found them wanting. Essay? Rather, they sounded like people who had no idea what Keynesian economics was about, who were resurrecting pre-1930 fallacies in the belief that they were saying something new and themen finance, profound. And it wasn’t just Keynes whose ideas seemed to have been forgotten. As Brad DeLong of the University of California, Berkeley, has pointed out in his laments about the bilogy, Chicago school’s “intellectual collapse,” the thesis themen finance, school’s current stance amounts to a wholesale rejection of Milton Friedman’s ideas, as well. Friedman believed that Fed policy rather than changes in women in leadership essays government spending should be used to thesis finance stabilize the economy, but he never asserted that an increase in government spending cannot, under any circumstances, increase employment. In fact, rereading Friedman’s 1970 summary of his ideas, “A Theoretical Framework for Monetary Analysis,” what’s striking is how Keynesian it seems.

And Friedman certainly never bought into the idea that mass unemployment represents a voluntary reduction in work effort or the idea that recessions are actually good for the economy. Yet the current generation of freshwater economists has been making both arguments. Family Reviews? Thus Chicago’s Casey Mulligan suggests that unemployment is so high because many workers are choosing not to thesis finance take jobs: “Employees face financial incentives that encourage them not to work . Entrance Essay? . Thesis Themen? . decreased employment is explained more by reductions in the supply of labor (the willingness of people to pharmacy essay work) and less by thesis themen the demand for labor (the number of case study of depression in adolescence workers that employers need to hire).” Mulligan has suggested, in particular, that workers are choosing to remain unemployed because that improves their odds of receiving mortgage relief. And Cochrane declares that high unemployment is actually good: “We should have a recession. People who spend their lives pounding nails in Nevada need something else to do.” Personally, I think this is crazy.

Why should it take mass unemployment across the whole nation to themen finance get carpenters to move out of Nevada? Can anyone seriously claim that we’ve lost 6.7 million jobs because fewer Americans want to debate work? But it was inevitable that freshwater economists would find themselves trapped in this cul-de-sac: if you start from the assumption that people are perfectly rational and thesis themen, markets are perfectly efficient, you have to term paper conclude that unemployment is voluntary and recessions are desirable. Yet if the crisis has pushed freshwater economists into absurdity, it has also created a lot of soul-searching among saltwater economists. Their framework, unlike that of the Chicago School, both allows for the possibility of involuntary unemployment and considers it a bad thing. But the New Keynesian models that have come to dominate teaching and research assume that people are perfectly rational and financial markets are perfectly efficient.

To get anything like the current slump into their models, New Keynesians are forced to introduce some kind of fudge factor that for reasons unspecified temporarily depresses private spending. (I’ve done exactly that in themen finance some of my own work.) And if the the glass essay, analysis of thesis where we are now rests on this fudge factor, how much confidence can we have in of movies the models’ predictions about where we are going? The state of macro, in short, is thesis, not good. So where does the profession go from here? Economics, as a field, got in trouble because economists were seduced by case of depression in adolescence the vision of a perfect, frictionless market system. If the profession is to finance redeem itself, it will have to reconcile itself to study of depression in adolescence a less alluring vision — that of a market economy that has many virtues but that is also shot through with flaws and frictions. The good news is that we don’t have to start from scratch. Even during the heyday of perfect-market economics, there was a lot of work done on the ways in which the themen, real economy deviated from the theoretical ideal.

What’s probably going to happen now — in fact, it’s already happening — is that flaws-and-frictions economics will move from the periphery of economic analysis to its center. There’s already a fairly well developed example of the kind of paper economics I have in mind: the school of thought known as behavioral finance. Thesis? Practitioners of this approach emphasize two things. First, many real-world investors bear little resemblance to the cool calculators of efficient-market theory: they’re all too subject to herd behavior, to bouts of irrational exuberance and unwarranted panic. Second, even those who try to base their decisions on cool calculation often find that they can’t, that problems of trust, credibility and the glass essay, limited collateral force them to run with the herd. On the first point: even during the thesis, heyday of the efficient-market hypothesis, it seemed obvious that many real-world investors aren’t as rational as the prevailing models assumed. Bilogy? Larry Summers once began a paper on finance by declaring: “THERE ARE IDIOTS. Look around.” But what kind of idiots (the preferred term in the academic literature, actually, is “noise traders”) are we talking about? Behavioral finance, drawing on the broader movement known as behavioral economics, tries to answer that question by relating the thesis themen, apparent irrationality of investors to known biases in human cognition, like the tendency to care more about energy bilogy small losses than small gains or the tendency to extrapolate too readily from thesis themen finance small samples (e.g., assuming that because home prices rose in of movies the past few years, they’ll keep on rising). Until the crisis, efficient-market advocates like Eugene Fama dismissed the evidence produced on behalf of behavioral finance as a collection of “curiosity items” of no real importance. That’s a much harder position to maintain now that the thesis, collapse of a vast bubble — a bubble correctly diagnosed by behavioral economists like Robert Shiller of family Yale, who related it to past episodes of thesis themen finance “irrational exuberance” — has brought the in leadership essays, world economy to its knees.

On the second point: suppose that there are, indeed, idiots. How much do they matter? Not much, argued Milton Friedman in an influential 1953 paper: smart investors will make money by buying when the idiots sell and thesis themen, selling when they buy and will stabilize markets in the process. But the second strand of behavioral finance says that Friedman was wrong, that financial markets are sometimes highly unstable, and right now that view seems hard to reject. Probably the most influential paper in this vein was a 1997 publication by Andrei Shleifer of Harvard and Robert Vishny of Chicago, which amounted to a formalization of the essay, old line that “the market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent.” As they pointed out, arbitrageurs — the people who are supposed to buy low and sell high — need capital to do their jobs. And a severe plunge in asset prices, even if it makes no sense in terms of fundamentals, tends to deplete that capital. As a result, the smart money is forced out of the thesis, market, and prices may go into a downward spiral. The spread of the current financial crisis seemed almost like an object lesson in the perils of paper financial instability.

And the thesis themen, general ideas underlying models of financial instability have proved highly relevant to of depression economic policy: a focus on the depleted capital of financial institutions helped guide policy actions taken after the fall of Lehman, and thesis themen, it looks (cross your fingers) as if these actions successfully headed off an even bigger financial collapse. Meanwhile, what about macroeconomics? Recent events have pretty decisively refuted the idea that recessions are an optimal response to energy bilogy term paper fluctuations in thesis themen the rate of technological progress; a more or less Keynesian view is the essay, only plausible game in town. Themen? Yet standard New Keynesian models left no room for a crisis like the essay, one we’re having, because those models generally accepted the efficient-market view of the financial sector. There were some exceptions.

One line of work, pioneered by thesis themen none other than Ben Bernanke working with Mark Gertler of New York University, emphasized the way the lack of essay carson sufficient collateral can hinder the ability of businesses to raise funds and pursue investment opportunities. A related line of work, largely established by my Princeton colleague Nobuhiro Kiyotaki and John Moore of the London School of Economics, argued that prices of assets such as real estate can suffer self-reinforcing plunges that in turn depress the economy as a whole. But until now the themen, impact of dysfunctional finance hasn’t been at the core even of Keynesian economics. Clearly, that has to change. So here’s what I think economists have to do. First, they have to face up to the inconvenient reality that financial markets fall far short of perfection, that they are subject to extraordinary delusions and the madness of crowds. Second, they have to admit — and this will be very hard for gun control essay, the people who giggled and whispered over thesis themen finance Keynes — that Keynesian economics remains the best framework we have for making sense of recessions and depressions.

Third, they’ll have to do their best to essays incorporate the realities of themen finance into macroeconomics. Many economists will find these changes deeply disturbing. It will be a long time, if ever, before the new, more realistic approaches to finance and macroeconomics offer the same kind of clarity, completeness and sheer beauty that characterizes the full neoclassical approach. To some economists that will be a reason to the glass cling to neoclassicism, despite its utter failure to make sense of the greatest economic crisis in thesis finance three generations. This seems, however, like a good time to recall the words of H. Case In Adolescence? L. Mencken: “There is themen finance, always an easy solution to in leadership every human problem — neat, plausible and wrong.” When it comes to the all-too-human problem of recessions and thesis finance, depressions, economists need to abandon the neat but wrong solution of assuming that everyone is rational and markets work perfectly. The vision that emerges as the profession rethinks its foundations may not be all that clear; it certainly won’t be neat; but we can hope that it will have the virtue of being at least partly right. Because of an editing error, an article on Page 36 this weekend about the failure of economists to anticipate the latest recession misquotes the economist John Maynard Keynes, who compared the financial markets of the pharmacy entrance essay, 1930s to newspaper beauty contests in which readers tried to correctly pick all six eventual winners. Keynes noted that a competitor did not have to pick “those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the other competitors.” He did not say, “nor even those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of thesis themen other competitors.” Paul Krugman is a Times Op-Ed columnist and women in leadership essays, winner of the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science. His latest book is thesis themen finance, “The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008.”

A version of this article appears in print on , on gun control debate, Page MM36 of the thesis themen finance, Sunday Magazine with the headline: How Did Economists Get it So Wrong?. Today's Paper | Subscribe. We’re interested in your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.

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Security Clearance Military Secrets. You may need a security clearance to hold different jobs in the military and thesis themen finance with civilian contractors. What do they investigate and how far back do they go to decide if you get one? What can keep you from getting a security clearance? For how long is pharmacy essay a security clearance valid? The military possesses information and finance technology which could be helpful to our enemies. Unauthorized release of this information can compromise national security.

Loose lips sink ships. A security clearance investigation ensures that you are eligible for access to national security information. The investigation focuses on your character and conduct, emphasizing such factors as honesty, trustworthiness, reliability, financial responsibility, criminal activity, emotional stability, and other pertinent areas. All investigations consist of checks of national records and credit checks; some investigations also include interviews with individuals who know the candidate for gun control essay debate the clearance as well as the candidate himself/herself. Classified Information and themen finance Security Clearance Categories. In the military, all classified information is divided into one of energy term paper, three categories: Confidential: Unauthorized disclosure could cause damage to the national security. Secret: Unauthorized disclosure could cause serious damage to the national security. Top Secret: Unauthorized disclosure could cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security. In addition to the above, some classified information is so sensitive that even the thesis themen finance extra protection measures applied to Top Secret information are not sufficient.

This information is known as Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) or Special Access Programs (SAP), and one needs special SCI Access or SAP approval to be given access to energy bilogy paper, this information. For Official Use Only is not a security classification. It is used to themen, protect information covered under the Privacy Act, and other sensitive data. Who Requires a Security Clearance? You need a security clearance if your need access to classified information to perform your duties. If your job requires you to have access to Confidential Information, you would require a Confidential Security Clearance, for example. For military personnel, two things determine the level of security clearance required; your MOS/AFSC/Rating (Job), and your assignment. Many military jobs require access to gun control essay debate, classified information, regardless of where you are assigned. In other cases, the job itself may not require a security clearance, but the particular location or unit that the person is assigned to would require giving access to finance, classified information and essay material.

The Department of Defense (DOD) operates its security program separate from other government agencies, with its own procedures and standards. A Top Secret Clearance with the Department of Energy, for example, would not necessarily transfer to DOD. In the United States military, only United States citizens can be granted a DOD security clearance. Merely having a certain level of thesis themen finance, security clearance does not mean you are authorized to view classified information. To have access to classified information, you must possess the necessary two elements: A level of security clearance, at least equal to the classification of the energy paper information, and an appropriate need to know the information in thesis themen order to perform their duties. Just because you have a Secret Clearance, you would have access to all Secret Information in the military. You would need to energy bilogy term, have a specific reason to know that information before you were granted access. Who Conducts Security Clearance Background Investigations?

Security Clearance Background Investigations for finance the Department of family reviews, Defense (DOD) are conducted by the Defense Security Service (DSS). This includes background investigations for military personnel, civilian personnel who work for themen finance DOD, and military contractors. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) conducts Security Clearance Investigations for pharmacy most other branches of the Federal Government. How are Security Clearances Granted? Once it is determined that a military member requires a security clearance because of thesis themen finance, assignment or job, you are instructed to complete a Security Clearance Background Investigation Questionnaire. It is done with an electronic form. You'll need to case, provide information for the previous five years for Confidential and finance Secret clearances and for the previous 10 years for Top Secret clearances. Giving false information on study a Security Document constitutes a violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 101, and Article 107 of the Uniform Code of finance, Military Justice (UCMJ). In Leadership Essays. Under the United States Code, you may be fined, and imprisoned for a period of five years.

Under the UCMJ, the maximum punishment includes a reduction to the lowest enlisted grade, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, confinement for a period of themen finance, five years, and gun control essay debate a dishonorable discharge. The form contains a statement which you sign authorizing release of thesis themen, any information about essay you to security clearance investigators. That includes sealed records, juvenile records, expunged records, and medical records. Answering all of the questions on the SF86 accurately is evidence of your reliability and honesty. Your clearance could be denied if you conceal information. Once granted, your clearance could be revoked if they later discovered you had been dishonest in filling out the forms. If you realize after you submit the form that you made a mistake or omitted something important, tell your Security Officer, Recruiter, MEPS Security Interviewer, or the DSS Investigator when you are interviewed. If you do not do so, the error or omission could be held against you during the adjudicative process. Once you complete the questionnaire, it is sent to the Defense Security Service (DSS).

They verify the information and perform the actual background investigation. Themen. The level of the investigation depends upon the level of access to be granted. For Confidential and Secret Clearances, they will do a National Agency Check (NAC) -- a search of records held by federal agencies including the FBI and OPM, a Local Agency Check (LAC) -- a review of entrance essay, criminal history records, and a financial check of your credit record. For Top Secret Clearances, a Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) is performed which includes all of the above, plus field interviews of references, checks of records held by employers, courts, and rental offices, and a subject interview of themen finance, you by an investigator. NACs may be performed electronically from a central location. DSS uses both DSS Agents and private detective agencies in the local area. Investigators will do field interviews with the references you listed on the questionnaire and use them to develop more references to interview.

They will be asked questions about your character and whether you should be given access to classified information or assigned to a sensitive position. The Glass Carson. The interviews are wide-ranging with questions about your activities, job history, education, family, finances, drugs, alcohol problems, and thesis finance police encounters. You will also have a wide-ranging interview that will cover most aspects of your life. During the subject interview, expect to study in adolescence, be questioned about your family background, experiences, health, use of alcohol or drugs, financial affairs, foreign travel, and thesis many other topics. The investigator is experienced in conducting these interviews.

It is unlikely that anything you say will cause him or her shock or surprise. Case Study In Adolescence. Be as candid as possible. The investigator will try to put you at ease if you become upset or uncomfortable. It is in your best interest to answer the investigator's questions in order for thesis themen an adjudicator to women in leadership essays, reach a valid decision on your suitability to access classified information or be appointed to a sensitive position or position of themen finance, trust. What Determines Approval or Disapproval? Each military service has their own adjudicator that receives the information from DSS and decides whether to case of depression in adolescence, grant the security clearance. They apply their specific guidelines to your case. Themen. They may request further investigation of problem areas.

Adjudicators are not the final authority. Debate. All denials of clearances must be personally reviewed by a branch chief or higher authority. The adjudicator considers the following factors when evaluating an individual’s conduct: The nature, extent and seriousness of the conduct The circumstances surrounding the conduct, to include knowledgeable participation The frequency and recency of the conduct The individual’s age and maturity at the time of the conduct The voluntariness of participation The presence or absence of rehabilitation and other pertinent behavioral changes The motivation for the conduct The potential for pressure, coercion, exploitation, or duress; and The likelihood of continuation of the conduct. Any doubt as to thesis, whether access to classified information is clearly consistent with national security will be resolved in debate favor of the national security. Law requires denial of a clearance for these circumstances: Convicted in thesis any court of the case study in adolescence U.S. of a crime and themen finance sentenced to gun control debate, imprisonment for a term exceeding one year.

Using a controlled substance (as defined in section 102 or the Controlled Substances Act. If you are mentally incompetent as determined by a mental health professional approved by themen finance the DoD If you have a dishonorable discharge from the military. Exceptions can be granted by energy bilogy the highest authorities. In general, expect a Confidential or Secret clearance to take between one and three months. Thesis Themen Finance. A Top Secret will probably take between four and bilogy paper eight months but can take more than a year.

It takes longer if you've lived and worked in thesis themen finance many locations, have foreign travel, have relatives in foreign countries, and you have issues that need further investigation. If you are a new military recruit, the study of depression computerized checks can start while you are in the Delayed Enlistment Program (DEP). Thesis Finance. But field interviews aren't started until you go to basic training. They are the the glass essay by anne most expensive part of the themen process, and some recruits change their mind while in the DEP and don't ship out to basic training. If your technical training (AIT/Tech School/A-School) requires access to classified information, you may be assigned to do details (such as answering the phone in pharmacy an office) while waiting for thesis themen your security clearance to be granted. In some cases, you may be authorized to attend non-classified portions of the in leadership training while awaiting the themen finance results of your security clearance application. Sometimes, military commanders can authorize an interim clearance which allows access to classified information while waiting for the official clearance to be approved. This can sometimes be done if the initial computerized criminal check finds no problems. How Do I Check the Status of My Clearance Investigation? You aren't allowed to energy bilogy term paper, check directly with DSS. Finance. All status checks must be made by the Unit or Contractor Security Officer.

They are allowed to call DSS. After I'm Granted a Clearance, Can it Later Be Revoked? Your clearance can be revoked, and there is an ongoing evaluation for the glass by anne all personnel holding security clearances. There are reporting procedures for supervisors to alert Facility Security Officers when there is an thesis, incident or suspicion about a person with a security clearance. Clearance may be suspended during an essay debate, investigation. Incidents that are not immediately investigated may be noted and explored later when that individual undergoes a routinely scheduled Periodic Reinvestigation. Information relating to the following issues may be considered significant in relation to holding a clearance: Allegiance to the U.S.

Foreign Influence Foreign preference Sexual Behavior Personal Conduct Financial Considerations Alcohol Consumption Drug Involvement Emotional, Mental and Personality Disorders Criminal Conduct Security Violations Outside Activities Misuse of Information Technology Systems. Can I Appeal a Clearance Denial or Revocation? You have the right to appeal the adjudicative decision. You'll be provided the themen finance reason it was denied or revoked and steps for filing an appeal. How Long Are Security Clearances Valid?

A Periodic Reinvestigation (PR) is required every five years for a Top Secret Clearance, 10 years for a Secret Clearance, or 15 years for a Confidential Clearance. But you may be subject to a random investigation at any time. When a security clearance is inactivated (ie, when someone gets out of the military, or quits from their government civilian job or contractor job), it can be reactivated within 24 months, as long as the last background investigation falls within the above time-frame. Having a security clearance can give you hiring preference with DOD contractors once you leave the military, as it saves them the expense of conducting one. Once your clearance expires, you will have to have present or pending duties to get it renewed.

Are Polygraph (Lie Detector) Tests Required? The use of the polygraph for any Department of Defense program is governed by DoD Directive 5210.48 and DOD Regulation 5320.48R. It is needed for those in women essays the DSS, National Security Agency, when on loan to themen finance, the CIA, and for some SCI and SAP access programs. Polygraph examination can be performed when there is a security investigation, but you have to energy bilogy, give your permission for it to be done. It can also be done when they are investigating federal felonies including the release of classified information or an act of themen finance, terrorism. Regulations govern the polygraph examination and questions are reviewed with you before it is performed. They are prohibited from asking about religious or political belief and women essays subjects that are not related to the investigation.

What About Companies That Advertise to Hire People With Clearances? You can apply for these jobs if you don't have a clearance, but they will give preference to those who already have a security clearance. The government pays the cost of finance, clearances for military personnel and energy bilogy term paper civilian government employees. But the thesis themen finance law requires that contractors pay most of the costs of essay, obtaining clearances for their employees. That's why contractors often advertise for thesis themen finance applicants who already hold a valid clearance. Additionally, it saves them time, as they don't have to wait for months for gun control essay the new employee to obtain a clearance, and thesis finance begin to women in leadership, do the job they were hired for. The average cost to process a Secret clearance can run from several hundred dollars to $3,000, depending upon individual factors.

The average cost to process a Top Secret clearance is between $3,000 and about $15,000, depending upon individual factors. You cannot simply request a clearance for yourself and thesis themen finance offer to pay for it. Debate. To obtain a clearance you have to have a job which requires one (either by thesis themen being in the military, or a government civilian job, or a contractor job).

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. Themen Finance. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and reviews easier. For your paper, you will pick an thesis, issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about.

As you read through information on energy bilogy this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of thesis themen finance fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in family, athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the thesis increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to study, be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on themen finance elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in women in leadership essays, political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to thesis themen finance, political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of the glass by anne carson artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for thesis your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to pharmacy essay, make designer babies? (value) What can be done to themen finance, reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the the glass essay by anne carson U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from thesis themen, high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)?

Does adding days to entrance essay, the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to thesis, spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in bilogy, public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the thesis themen reverse—has caused them to case study of depression in adolescence, be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and thesis themen finance emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the in leadership way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to thesis finance, be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in entrance essay, the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the themen U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the essay debate right to require people to themen finance, prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the gun control U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the thesis themen finance way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. Pharmacy Essay. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in themen finance, terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for case study people to adopt children from finance, another ethnic group? (value) What is case of depression culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to thesis themen finance, teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to case study of depression in adolescence, be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to themen finance, other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to pharmacy essay, stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to thesis, help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the women essays importance of clean water? (fact) What is the finance relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of pharmacy species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to finance, stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of case disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by thesis themen finance, Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . Paper. In the thesis themen finance back of bilogy this book is a list of thesis finance suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for pharmacy a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about thesis themen finance, that issue.

Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Family Reviews. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of thesis themen what to write about. In Leadership Essays. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by thesis, Virginia Kearney 42.

100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Energy. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. Thesis Finance. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and women in leadership essays conclusion. Finance. Start with your situation and essay carson then stop part-way through and thesis finance ask the question: should you call CPS?

Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the case study end of your story. See my articles on themen finance How to energy bilogy paper, write an thesis finance, argument paper and family reviews of movies How to write a position paper for thesis themen full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the essays child protective services but much is thesis themen finance not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for entrance essay my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the thesis themen process.

Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to essay, research why local languages are not included in themen, the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on of depression this topic. Finally, you might want to thesis, get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in the glass essay by anne, their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an themen, all English school later, they were often not able to energy bilogy, catch up. Thesis Themen. However, that only essays, works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in thesis finance, the U.S. but not true in case, a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for thesis your country to women essays, consider.

I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Finance. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the bilogy term paper leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against thesis themen finance fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to gun control, be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Thesis Themen Finance. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Essay By Anne. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in themen, schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.

I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from entrance, this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to thesis themen finance, listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music.

I need help on family reviews my regerian Argument eassy on thesis finance culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. The Glass Essay By Anne Carson. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester!

Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about themen finance, how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for the glass essay .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print).

One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to themen finance, share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an gun control debate, Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from thesis themen, United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at debate the links that usually appear when you pull up one of thesis finance my articles. Search Argument essays or How to reviews, Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. Themen Finance. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to family reviews of movies, face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . Themen. I dont how to gun control essay debate, start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from thesis finance, United States.

Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is pharmacy entrance true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the thesis definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for the glass essay by anne carson posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy!

Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from themen finance, United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously.

Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an study of depression, interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from thesis, United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about.

Then think about the glass essay by anne, what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Thesis. Decide what you want your reader to women in leadership, think, do or believe after they read your essay. Themen Finance. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to family reviews, persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis.

Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is thesis finance what you will use to support those three reasons. Essay. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of thesis themen what good will come if your reader believes you. Women In Leadership. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by thesis themen finance, my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Gun Control Essay Debate. Another possible argument on themen finance this topic is pharmacy whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for thesis better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for essay your health. Or you can talk about thesis themen, GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is bilogy term paper great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the thesis themen finance devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. Of Depression In Adolescence. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Thesis. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of women essays their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and themen advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and essay respective owners.

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Derek Walcott Walcott, Derek (Poetry Criticism) - Essay. Derek Walcott 1930- (Full name Derek Alton Walcott) West Indian poet and themen, playwright. A Nobel laureate and prominent West Indian literary figure, Walcott is known for writing poetry and drama that transcends traditional boundaries of race, geography, and language while exploring themes of cross-cultural ethnicity, political chauvinism, and postcolonial Caribbean history. Walcott was born on January 2, 1930, in Castries—the capital city of Saint Lucia, a small Caribbean island that was once a British colony in the Lesser Antilles. His father, who died during Walcott's early life, was British; his mother was West Indian.

Both were teachers who valued education, cultural enrichment, and creative expression. Encouraged by their mother, Walcott and his twin brother Roderick were active with a local theater group as children and young adults. Walcott displayed an early talent for poetry, publishing his first work at fourteen and his first book, 25 Poems (1948), at eighteen. At twenty he wrote and pharmacy essay, staged Henri Christophe (1950) and themen finance, cofounded the Santa Lucia Arts Guild with his brother, who also became a playwright. In 1953 Walcott received a bachelor's degree in English, French, and Latin at the University College of the West Indies in Jamaica. Soon thereafter, he began to teach in West Indian schools, while continuing to write and produce plays. In 1958 he accepted a Rockefeller fellowship to study drama in New York City.

The next year, he moved to Trinidad, where he established the Little Carib Theatre Workshop, which would later become the Trinidad Theatre Workshop. Although he also continued to create and produce plays, during the next decade Walcott turned his attention once again to gun control poetry. His 1962 volume, In a Green Night, garnered positive reviews in the English-speaking world and brought his name to thesis finance the forefront of emerging nontraditional poets. In 1971 Walcott's play Dream on Monkey Mountain (1967) received an Obie award. This marked Walcott's first major notice as an internationally recognized playwright. Walcott received a Guggenheim fellowship in 1977; in 1979 he was named an honorary member of the in leadership American Academy of themen finance Arts and Letters.

During the early 1980s, Walcott began teaching at several universities in the United States, including Columbia, Howard, and Boston University. He divided his time between residences in gun control essay debate, the Caribbean and in the United States. Finance? In 1992 Walcott became the energy bilogy first native Caribbean to receive the finance Nobel prize for literature. The central theme of Walcott's poetry focuses on dichotomy of Caribbean and Western civilization as seen through the prisms of postcolonical race relations and cross-cultural identity issues. Reviews Of Movies? His first significant collection, In a Green Night (1962), established several of the themes that would appear in subsequent verse. His 1969 volume, The Gulf and thesis finance, Other Poems, is notable for case study, stylistically diverse poems that are unified through a repeated thematic examination of separation and loss. Also among his early volumes of poetry is Another Life (1973), an autobiographical book-length work. Walcott's primary poetic output is considered by some observers to thesis finance be that which was published between 1976 and 1987, including Sea Grapes (1976), The Star-Apple Kingdom (1979), The Fortunate Traveller (1981), Midsummer (1984), and The Arkansas Testament (1987). In 1989, Walcott published his epic poem Omeros, which was based on gun control essay the themes and portrayals of odyssey and identity found in Homer's classic The Iliad.

Later works of poetry include The Bounty, which was published in 1997, and Tiepolo's Hound (2000), a book-length poem illustrated with the themen finance author's own paintings. Although his dramatic works are also highly regarded, Walcott's literary reputation is based most securely on case his poetry. He has been widely lauded as an thesis finance accomplished poet known for masterful explorations of racial, cultural, and historical consciousness that incorporate both classical and Afro-Caribbean themes and experience. The Glass Essay By Anne Carson? Among Walcott's poetry, In a Green Night, Another Life, and thesis finance, Omeros have been particularly well-received by literary critics. Despite—or perhaps because of—his prominence as an accomplished English language wordsmith, some critics have charged that Walcott's written expression is women in leadership, so refined and technically intricate that it can obscure or overshadow his meaning. Walcott's self-defined position as a cross-cultural artist and commentator has also invited criticism from both sides of an often contentious cultural divide: he has been called too Western by finance some Afrocentric critics and too Afro-Caribbean by some Eurocentric critics. This type of criticism has softened somewhat as his international literary status has grown. Walcott has earned a literary reputation that, by many accounts, places him among some of the greatest contemporary writers. Access our Derek Walcott Study Guide for Free.

Epitaph for the Young: XII Cantos 1949. In a Green Night: Poems, 1948-1960 1962. Selected Poems 1964. The Castaway and the glass essay carson, Other Poems 1965. The Gulf and Other Poems 1969. Another Life 1973. Selected Verse 1976.

The Star-Apple Kingdom 1979. The Fortunate Traveller 1981. Collected Poems, 1948-1984 1986. The Arkansas Testament 1987. Poems, 1965-1980 1992. Derek Walcott: Selected Poems 1993. Tiepolo's Hound (poetry, plays, and essay) 2000. Dream on thesis themen finance Monkey Mountain (play) 1967.

Dream on Monkey Mountain and Other Plays (plays and essays) 1970. The Joker of women in leadership Seville [with music by thesis Galt MacDermot] (play) 1974. O Babylon! [with music by Galt MacDermot] (play) 1976. Remembrance (play) 1977. Pantomime (play) 1978. Beef, No Chicken (play) 1982.

A Branch of the Blue Nile (play) 1986. The Capeman: A Musical [with Paul Simon] (play) 1997. What the Twilight Says: Essays (essays) 1998. Walker and Ghost Dance (plays) 2002. SOURCE: Brown, Lloyd W. “Caribbean Castaway New World Odyssey: Derek Walcott's Poetry.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 11, no. Reviews? 2 (1976): 149-59. [ In the following essay, Brown offers an overview of thesis Walcott's poetry, tracing the pharmacy entrance theme of “the New World” that appears throughout his work. ] In the poem ‘Elegy’ Derek Walcott offers a bleak image of the themen finance American Dream as New World nightmare: This elegy on the democratic ideal in the New World as a whole is interwoven with an expose of the energy paper essential falsities that have always been inherent in the rhetoric of idealism within the United States:

This poem deserves to be cited in some detail, because it provides a useful introduction to some of the typical emphases in Walcott's poetry, specifically, his interest in a New World experience that is concentrated in a Caribbean consciousness and symbolized by United States history. In turn, this interest is rooted in a sense of crisis regarding the myths and institutions of moral idealism. On the one hand, the idea of a New World conjures up the image of new beginnings, the promise of a re-created order of things; and this new order is fraught with new epistemological possibilities—with new ways of thesis finance perceiving and describing (or naming) things. On the other hand, there is a brooding suspicion that the new possibilities have been betrayed in that historical process which destroyed the dreams of a Che, and before him, groups like the Cheyennes. (It is dramatically appropriate that Che's name represents the first three letters of ‘Cheyennes’.) The orthographic coincidence points up a telling historical analogy: it is the same analogy which links the oppressed Black (by way of the arrowhead metaphor) with the dispossessed Indian, or (ironically) the bullet-riddled Che with the victim (John Kennedy, presumably) of a presidential assassin. Moreover, the geographical image of the West Indian archipelago (‘our hammock’) unobtrusively links the tragedy of dispossession in North America with the destruction of the hammock-weaving Arawaks of the pre-Colombian Caribbean. The cultural and geographical divisions of the New World have been deliberately obscured in Walcott's vision of betrayed ideals and corrupted institutions in energy term paper, the New World as a whole.

The poet subjects the mythic traditions of the New World to similar juxtapositions. In one sense the mythological process is themen finance, creative and vitalizing: it both represents and pharmacy entrance, facilitates the finance human need to articulate the perceived truths of energy experience and those dream ideals which transform reality. Walcott's Che is, thus, the poet's mythic apotheosis of thesis finance social justice and reform. But, in another sense, myth is not a transforming truth but a mere falsehood decked out in the transparent images of case study of depression specious innocence. Finance? Hence the all-American sex code is the glass essay, a feigned but profitable puritanism (‘every body wants to go to thesis themen finance bed / with Miss America’). Having demolished the gun control wholesome image of the innocent all-American, the poet establishes a highly suspect image of thesis themen finance that perennial symbol of bilogy term paper American innocence—the cherry pie. Thus the cherry tree invokes not only the legendary honesty of George Washington (that pre-eminently ‘ideal’ American), but also suspicions about themen Washington's possible contributions to the falsehoods of America's ‘innocence’, falsehoods that are palpable in the fates of the Cheyennes and the Blacks.

The echoes of Marie Antoinette's Old World decadence (‘let them eat cherry pie’) are, therefore, shocking precisely because they are unexpected in the ‘innocent’ ambience of the New World. Finally, the poem offers a self-conscious view of the artist's role in it all. Walcott associates his own analysis of the New World with the works of those writers whose insights and entrance essay, techniques are pertinent to his themes. Hence the theme of death and re-birth, which mocks the history of promise and disillusionment in New World democracy, echoes T. S. Eliot's vision of life and death in The Waste Land. The image of ‘yearly lilacs’ recalls Eliot's grasp of the thesis finance paradox of life co-existing, even dependent upon, death; 2 and term paper, it also reflects Walcott's awareness of the old corruptions which have destroyed the early promises of the New World, as well as his continuing optimism that there can be a genuinely new order that is intrinsic to the New World although rooted in the old waste land. In a similar vein, the thesis cherry orchard reference recalls Chekov's vision, in The Cherry Orchard, of the possibilities of gun control essay rebirth-in-death. On the whole, this theme of new beginnings assumes the dimensions of an odyssey in Walcott's poetry. In a general sense, he envisages the odyssey of the artist (Eliot or Chekov, for thesis, example) as the search for, or a re-assertion of, stable values in a moral and social waste land. Hence the grim moral landscape of the Americans in pharmacy entrance essay, ‘Elegy’ is counterbalanced by thesis finance the kind of in leadership moral energy that is evoked by the implied references to the insights of The Waste Land and themen, The Cherry Orchard.

Chekov and Eliot assume outsider identities because their moral idealism contrasts so strongly with the pharmacy entrance false or aborted ideals with which they are surrounded in thesis finance, Walcott's America. The artist's identity as outsider, or castaway (to anticipate a typical Walcott archetype), emphasizes his lonely odyssey for renewal in energy paper, an environment of decaying values. In more specifically West Indian terms, Walcott's artist is the outsider archetype, not only in the traditional sense of the alienated artist, but also as an example of the West Indian as ethno-cultural castaway from Europe and Africa. And for this West Indian artist-castaway the quest for moral meaning is also a special odyssey for that new sense of being, that renewal of thesis themen human possibilities, which Walcott derives from the geo-cultural symbolism of his New World ambience. What we have in ‘Elegy’, then, is an overview of the cultural and in leadership, moral malaise which prompts the odyssey of the castaway figures in his poetry as a whole.

It is the kind of malaise that he describes repeatedly in the first three volumes of poems ( In a Green Night, The Castaway, and The Gulf ). In ‘Goats and Monkeys’ the racial and sexual tensions of Shakespeare's Othello represent the divisiveness of a world in which love has failed. The ‘innocent’ Desdemona and the ‘malevolent’ Moor are equally the victims of that failure: As the allusive quality of ‘Elegy’ has already demonstrated, Walcott's vision of the themen finance waste land habitually invokes the insights of his literary predecessors, and the Shakespearean themes of ‘Goats and case in adolescence, Monkeys’ are typical instances. So is finance, ‘The Prince’, for paper, here the intellectual figure contemplating moral corruption is represented by Hamlet, brooding over his mother's ‘lechery’ and the murder of thesis finance his father ( The Castaway, ) p. 29). In both these poems Walcott intensifies his vision of the failure of love and idealism by locating that failure, as did Shakespeare, in the family—in Othello's marriage and in gun control, the corrupted family ties of Hamlet's world. However, the failures symbolized here by the family are extended more explicitly to society as a whole in other poems. ‘The Gulf’ envisions the Gulf of Mexico as a symbol of thesis themen human division ( The Gulf, p. 27-30). Family Of Movies? The lift-off of a jet airliner over themen finance, the Gulf enacts an emotional and moral separation, or detachment, that is essentially destructive: ‘the divine soul detaches / itself from created things’; and human separateness is a foreboding of some punitive withdrawal by a Divine force. Women? In the process, this kind of separation has transformed the United States from the symbol of New World beginnings into a three-fold paradigm—of individual alienation (‘we leave [Dallas'] Love / Field’), of the violence of presidential assassination, and of the thesis finance betrayal of old ideals (‘the divine union / of these detached, divided States, whose slaughter darkens each summer now’). The prospects for the future are not re-assuring: ‘The Gulf, your gulf, is daily widening.’ The prophetic warning to the ‘divided’ States is grimly ambiguous: since the United States is, after all, a symbol of the human condition, the word ‘states’ extends the family American experience to all nations and to all states of being; and finally, ‘your gulf’ not only addresses the American with a wry reminder of. (The entire section is finance, 3856 words.)

Get Free Access to this Derek Walcott Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Valerie Trueblood (essay date May-June 1978) SOURCE: Trueblood, Valerie. “Valerie Trueblood on Derek Walcott.” American Poetry Review 7, no.

3 (May-June 1978): 7-10. [ In the following essay, Trueblood discusses poems from multiple volumes of Walcott's poetry, including In a Green Night, The Castaway and Other Poems, The Gulf, Another Life, and Sea Grapes.] The West Indian poet Derek Walcott published his first book of carson poetry in 1949, when he was still in themen finance, his teens. The Glass Essay By Anne? His second, In a Green Night, came out in 1962, and themen finance, since that time he has given us five more (as well as numerous plays) and case study of depression in adolescence, a world. “World” has lost its punch from being applied to the districts of thesis finance too many writers; I wish it. (The entire section is 4956 words.)

Get Free Access to this Derek Walcott Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and essay by anne, thousands more. Andrew Salkey (essay date winter 1982) SOURCE: Salkey, Andrew. “Inconsolable Songs of Our America: The Poetry of Derek Walcott.” World Literature Today: A Literary Quarterly of the University of Oklahoma 56, no. 1 (winter 1982): 51-53. [ In the following essay, Salkey discusses recurring themes of light, harmony, and completeness in Walcott's poetry. ] Rather like the generalized implication that there is a whole unified scene going for all of us in the New World, in the geographical, historical and thesis themen, political concept of Jose Marti's nuestra america, anything anyone says about the reviews poetry of Derek Walcott can be argued as true.

His is a new voice redolent with traceries of the finance elitist elegance of. (The entire section is 2281 words.) Robert Bensen (essay date spring 1986) SOURCE: Bensen, Robert. “The Painter as Poet: Derek Walcott's Midsummer .” Literary Review: An International Journal of Contemporary Writing 29, no. 3 (spring 1986): 259-68. [ In the following essay, Bensen examines the family of movies centrality of painting and imagery in Walcott's Midsummer.] An island of thesis themen obsessive beauty, a people impoverished but rich in their cultural heritage from Africa and Europe, and a lifetime to celebrate them in art: these gifts had been given the young Derek Walcott, who swore with his friend Dunstan St. Omer not to leave St. Lucia before they had put the island on canvas and in reviews of movies, words—every ravine, inlet, mangrove swamp and hill. (The entire section is 5061 words.)

David Mason (essay date spring 1986) SOURCE: Mason, David. “Derek Walcott: Poet of the New World.” I Literary Review: An International Journal of Contemporary Writing 29, no. 3 (spring 1986): 269-75. [ In the following essay, Mason explores the geographic expansion of Walcott's “literary territory” from the Caribbean roots of his earliest writings to North American and themen finance, Mediterranean settings. ] Although Helen Vendler has called Derek Walcott a “Poet of in leadership Two Worlds,” 1 it may be more accurate to call him a poet of the New World, a world which has absorbed the thesis themen old and carson, is still faced with its own lack of definition. His formal proclivities help him bridge old and new writing styles, and. (The entire section is 2686 words.) Derek Walcott and Rebekah Presson (interview date 1992)

SOURCE: Walcott, Derek, and Rebekah Presson. “The Man Who Keeps the English Language Alive: An Interview with Derek Walcott.” New Letters 59, no. 1 (1992): 8-15. [ The following interview focuses on Walcott's epic poem, Omeros.] [ Presson ]: The last time we talked you made much of what Omeros is not, and so what would you say it is? [Walcott]: It's long. Thesis? I don't know. In the reviews that have been coming out, they've been using the word “epic” a lot. I just reread it again, and in leadership, I suppose in terms of the scale of it—as an undertaking—it's large and does cover a lot of geographic elements, historical ground. Thesis? I think that's. (The entire section is 1875 words.) Edward Hirsch (essay date autumn 1997) SOURCE: Hirsch, Edward. “Poetry: Derek Walcott.” Wilson Quarterly 21 (autumn 1997): 109-11.

[ In the following essay, Hirsch offers a positive assessment of of depression Walcott's career as a poet and playwright. ] There is a force of exultation, a celebration of luck, when a writer finds himself a witness to the early morning of a culture that is thesis themen, defining itself, branch by family branch, leaf by leaf, in that self-defining dawn,” Derek Walcott said in his Nobel Prize lecture for thesis themen, 1992. Gun Control Debate? That force of exultation and celebration of luck, along with a sense of benediction and thesis finance, obligation, a continuous effort of women in leadership essays memory and excavation, and a “frightening duty” to “a fresh language and. (The entire section is thesis finance, 1056 words.) SOURCE: Hamner, Robert D. “Philoctete's Wound.” In Epic of the Dispossessed: Derek Walcott's Omeros, pp. 33-58.

Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997. [ In the following essay, Hamner offers a critical analysis of Walcott's epic poem Omeros, focusing particular attention on the role of the character Philoctetes. ] Despite the the glass by anne carson explicit parallels and allusions linking Omeros with its numerous epic predecessors, Walcott insists on more than one occasion that he deliberately resists writing a traditional “heroic poem.” This position may be traced at least as far back as “What the Twilight Says,” his introduction to Dream on Monkey Mountain. (The entire section is finance, 8601 words.) SOURCE: Wieland, James. “Adam's Task … : Myths and Fictions in the Poetry of Derek Walcott.” In The Ensphering Mind: History, Myth, and energy bilogy term, Fictions in the Poetry of Allen Curnow, Nissim Ezekiel, A. D. Hope, A. M. Klein, Christopher Okigbo, and Derek Walcott, pp. 165-88. Washington, D.C.: Three Continents, 1998. [ In the following essay, Wieland explores recurring allusions to mythological and fictional themes and characters in Walcott's body of work. ] On the thesis themen finance dust jacket of Another Life, George Lamming is quoted as having said: This is not the first time that Walcott has given a hint that his first passion is art as the.

(The entire section is 12924 words.) SOURCE: Thieme, John. Family Of Movies? “The Poet as Castaway.” In Derek Walcott, pp. Themen? 77-100. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999. [ In the following essay, Thieme analyzes the recurring motif of the Robinson Crusoe archetype in Walcott's poetry. ] While Walcott's plays from bilogy term paper Ti-Jean and His Brothers onwards demonstrate an increasing engagement with folk forms and community values, his poetry of the 1960s and themen, early 1970s remains very much that of an individual, isolated observer. Such a figure is the pharmacy entrance essay central protagonist in themen, his next collection, The Castaway (1965), where three poems, ‘The Castaway’, ‘Crusoe's Journal’ and ‘Crusoe's Island’, are. (The entire section is 7954 words.) Charles Lock (essay date spring 2000) SOURCE: Lock, Charles. “Derek Walcott's Omeros: Echoes from reviews a White-throated Vase.” Massachusetts Review 41, no. 1 (spring 2000): 9-31.

[ In the following essay, Lock presents an analysis of the depiction of themen finance women in the language and structure of Walcott's Omeros.] In reading Omeros we are struck, as we are in study in adolescence, the Iliad, by the silence of thesis finance Helen. Pharmacy? What is this silence, and how in a poem is silence to be figured? To depict the woman, without representing her voice, is for the poet to exercise his (specifically his ) descriptive powers, and to render the woman an object, whose silence is matched by its/her passivity. What remains is of course. (The entire section is 7782 words.) Derek Walcott and William R. Thesis Themen Finance? Ferris (interview date November-December 2001) SOURCE: Walcott, Derek, and William R. Ferris. “A Multiplicity of Voices: A Conversation with Derek Walcott.” Humanities 22, no. 6 (November-December 2001): 4-7, 50-53. [ The following interview focuses on entrance influences on Walcott's literary career including Caribbean history, Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, and the language of Shakespeare. ] [ Ferris ]: I want to finance begin by gun control essay debate quoting Joseph Brodsky's remark that “The West Indies were discovered by themen finance Columbus, colonized by the British, and essay by anne, immortalized by Walcott.”

You were born and raised in the West Indies and spend a good bit of each year in St. Lucia. What do you feel are the. (The entire section is 3216 words.) William A. Shullenberger (essay date November-December 2001)

SOURCE: Shullenberger, William A. “An Iliad for Our Time: Walcott's Caribbean Epic.” Humanities 22, no. 6 (November-December 2001): 47-49. [ In the themen finance following essay, Shullenberger compares Walcott's epic poem Omeros to Homer's Iliad.] Although we tend to assign the epic to the literary past as a bygone genre, Derek Walcott's Omeros, published in family reviews, 1990, asserts the thesis ongoing power of the epic to claim our attention and shape our understanding. The epic is a monumental literary form—an index to the depth and richness of a culture and the ultimate test of essay a writer's creative power.

Homer's Iliad stands at the beginning of the themen epic tradition in. (The entire section is reviews, 1458 words.) SOURCE: Ramazani, Jahan. Thesis Themen? “The Wound of Postcolonial History: Derek Walcott's Omeros. ” In The Hybrid Muse: Postcolonial Poetry in English, pp. Energy Bilogy Term? 49-71. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. [ In the thesis themen finance following essay, Ramazani traces the theme of postcolonial Afro-Caribbean cultural identity in Walcott's Omeros.] From an early age Derek Walcott felt a special “intimacy with the Irish poets” as “colonials with the same kind of problems that existed in the Caribbean. They were the pharmacy entrance essay niggers of Britain.” 1 Passionately identifying with Yeats, Joyce, Synge, and other Irish writers, Walcott shared especially in their conflicted response to the. (The entire section is themen, 11595 words.) SOURCE: Okpewho, Isidore. “Walcott, Homer, and the ‘Black Atlantic.’” Research in African Literatures 33, no. 1 (2002): 27-44.

[ In the pharmacy essay following essay, Okpewho examines Walcott's themes of journey, voyage, and cultural identity within the context of African Caribbean literary discourse. ] In exploring Derek Walcott's abiding recourse to Homer in his creative writing, I have chosen to invoke the discursive paradigm recently advertised by Paul Gilroy in his book because whatever problems we may agree it creates in its analysis of the condition of thesis themen finance blacks in family, Western society, the book has at any rate invited us to rethink familiar. (The entire section is 8646 words.) Breslin, Paul. Thesis? “Tracking Tiepolo's Hound. ” Poetry 178, no. 1 (April 2001): 38-40. In a positive review of Tiepolo's Hound, Breslin calls the work “strikingly beautiful.” Cribb, T. J. “Walcott, Poet and Painter.” Kenyon Review 23, no. 2 (spring 2001): 176-84. Examines the interrelationship between Walcott's poetry and debate, painting, as evident in Another Life, Omeros, and thesis finance, Tiepolo's Hound. Davis, Gregson. The Poetics of Derek Walcott: Intertextual Perspectives. The South Atlantic Quarterly 96, no.

2 (spring 1997). (The entire section is 286 words.) Derek Walcott Homework Help Questions. Derek Walcott’s “Ruins of a Great House” is accurately titled. It opens by describing the ruins of a colonial mansion, including stones (1), the dust of the beautiful girls who once lived. Derek Walcott is a St. Lucian-born poet, novelist, and literary critic.

His work is deeply influenced by both British and West Indian literary traditions. Study Of Depression In Adolescence? A postcolonial perspective of Walcott's. Due to thesis limited access to entrance essay both poems, below are some ideas to help get you started. Two dominant themes in Derek Walcott's poem Ruins of a Great House are certainly death and decay. Thesis Finance? Death is first. Walcott says “The Muse of History” is the “medusa of the New World” and that writers who attempt to family reviews of movies redress historical (namely white European) wrongs are being conveniently selective with. Derek Walcott, a West Indian writer, won the thesis finance Nobel Prize for Literature in energy bilogy term paper, 1992.

In choosing Walcott, the selection committee stated that his poetry contained luminosity and radiance. This.