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Pediatric Palliative Care and Pediatric Medical Ethics: Opportunities and revisions Challenges. The fields of pediatric palliative care (PPC) and pediatric medical ethics (PME) overlap substantially, owing to a variety of historical, cultural, and social factors. This entwined relationship provides opportunities for leveraging the strong communication skills of both sets of providers, as well as the potential for resource sharing and research collaboration. Not Poor Just. At the same time, the personal and professional relationships between PPC and PME present challenges, including potential conflict with colleagues, perceived or actual bias toward a palliative care perspective in resolving ethical problems, potential delay or underuse of PME services, and phd thesis revisions a potential undervaluing of the medical expertise required for psychology of religion research paper PPC consultation. We recommend that these challenges be managed by: (1) clearly defining and communicating clinical roles of PPC and PME staff, (2) developing questions that may prompt PPC and PME teams to request consultation from the other service, (3) developing explicit recusal criteria for PPC providers who also provide PME consultation, (4) ensuring that PPC and PME services remain organizationally distinct, and (5) developing well-defined and broad scopes of practice. Overall, the revisions, rich relationship between PPC and PME offers substantial opportunities to better serve patients and ap macroeconomics 2002 essay families facing difficult decisions. pediatrics palliative care medical ethics hospital care Abbreviations: PME — pediatric medical ethics PPC — pediatric palliative care. Prologue A 14-year-old boy, who we will call John, lies in bed. His head and back are propped up by pillows, his breathing appears labored, and his brow glistens with sweat. Next to his bed stands an IV pole with a patient controlled analgesia pump, a long thin clear plastic tube connected to phd thesis, the central venous catheter that protrudes from underneath his shirt.
The room is dark, the shades being drawn and broke all but the bathroom lights turned off. Outside, in the hallway, with the revisions, door to his room closed, his parents are conversing in an animated manner with the ap macroeconomics 2002, attending physician. Phd Thesis. They do not want their son to be told that the cancer has returned and is now widely spread. At the ap macroeconomics, same time, they recognize how uncomfortable their son is and want all efforts to be made to lessen his pain and ease his breathing. After a fairly lengthy discussion, the parents and the attending physician agree to phd thesis revisions, requesting both a palliative care consultation, to just broke essay, help with pain and symptom management as well as further clarification of goals and limits of phd thesis care, and an ethics consultation, to warfare book report, help think through the pros and cons of telling John the full truth or something less than the full truth. For the phd thesis, past several decades, in the realm of pediatric hospital practice, the fields of palliative care and medical ethics have to psychology research, a large degree overlapped and entwined. Indeed, this special supplement to Pediatrics , 1 of a series of phd thesis revisions supplements devoted to pediatric ethics, testifies to the particular relevance of marketing book pediatric palliative care (PPC) to pediatric medical ethics (PME), and revisions vice versa. In this issue, the reader will find illuminating discussions of the ethical “hot topics” of autonomy, truth telling, futility, the role of values in decision-making, the extent of professional duties, and the line between the easement of suffering and euthanasia (all fitted out with compelling apt examples from PPC). Even if the relationship between PPC and ethics is evident, we should not consider the marketing warfare report, depths of the relationship to be self-evident, nor should we be blase about how to best manage aspects of this relationship. 1 , 2 In this essay, we will explore the reasons for the association (at times verging on an alliance) between PPC and phd thesis revisions pediatric ethics, consider the not poor broke, advantages and disadvantages of this tight relationship, and phd thesis revisions offer up some recommendations about how to ap macroeconomics 2002 essay, manage and make the revisions, most of marketing report this set of connections (Fig 1). Reasons, opportunities, challenges, and recommendations for phd thesis managing the relationship between pediatric palliative care and pediatric medical ethics.
In writing this essay, one of phd thesis us is fully aware that he (albeit as a flawed example) personifies this enmeshed relationship, being both a practicing PPC physician as well as a practicing pediatric ethics consultant at a large children’s hospital. The reader should also be aware of these facts, as the phd thesis revisions, journey along this dual-path career may have provided not only certain insights but also some personal baggage that may have influenced what we write. The origins and causes of the association between PPC and ethics can be traced to historical and cultural factors, as well as a combination of plan self and social selection. In 1965, the concept of using “intermittent positive pressure ventilation” to treat immature infants was born into the world. 3 Although physicians had long provided care to infants who were born well before their due date, the introduction of revisions intubation and mechanical ventilation led to the creation not only of neonatal intensive care units during the business restructuring, ensuing decade, but also to a host of pressing ethical dilemmas. Doctors had to decide which premature infants should be treated with this level of high-intensity care. The alternative to intubation, mechanical ventilation, and other invasive neonatal intensive care unit interventions was to provide “comfort care measures,” or what we would today call palliative care.
4. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the practice of issuing “do not attempt resuscitation” orders both came into existence and became a focal point for phd thesis revisions ethical debates about the involvement of parents in broke essay the process of making decisions about the medical care that their children receive. Phd Thesis. 5 Here again, the dilemmas about the appropriate ways to care for dying children and ap macroeconomics 2002 essay children who have serious illnesses were the focus of both medical ethicists and of specialists in phd thesis palliative care. In 1979, the psychology research paper, paradigm-altering ethnographic study of the “private worlds of phd thesis dying children” revealed that children who had advanced cancer often fully understood the grim nature of need their prognosis. 6 Even so, the children seldom talked about their thoughts, beliefs, or dreams about dying, death, or an afterlife, maintaining this lonely isolation by a sad dance of “mutual pretense.” Both the children and their parents continued to behave with each other as though everything would be okay to phd thesis revisions, provide support to the person they loved. The ethical concern of truth telling was henceforth apiece with PPC. In 1982, Baby Doe was born with Down syndrome and restructuring an esophageal atresia with a tracheal esophageal fistula. After a decision to phd thesis revisions, not operate to 2002 essay, correct the atresia was made by his parents and physicians, the infant was treated with sedating and pain relieving medications until he died 6 days later. 7 The subsequent outcry and phd thesis passage of federal regulations underscored again the contentious dilemma of who to treat and how. More pointedly, the Baby Doe controversy brought to the fore concerns about revisions biases against disabled individuals, as well as concerns when family interests seem to outweigh the best interests of the phd thesis, child, with both sets of concerns potentially leading to fundamental injustices. 8 , 9.
These examples can be multiplied, illustrating how historically some of the most trenchant issues in pediatric medical ethics have arisen in the context of patients who have grave illness potentially confronting the end of report life, with difficult decisions to make about how to best care for these individuals. The observed historical association of PPC and PME is no coincidence, reflecting instead several aspects of revisions our cultural milieu that make this association likely. 10 Death is an oddly marginalized topic in American culture, being on the one hand the centerpiece of not poor just violent or frightening mainstream entertainment, yet on the other hand being an issue so painful and difficult to contemplate privately or discuss publicly that doing so in a sustained, thoughtful, considered manner is felt by many to be taboo. As a result, even though the death rate is ultimately 100%, we struggle as a society to envision the ideal care of dying individuals, to engage each other in revisions formulating plans to assure such care, and to enact these care plans. These struggles are difficult when the patient is a competent adult, and exponentially more difficult when concerning children.
PPC engages in this struggle, patient by patient. Such efforts require not only grappling with death, but also with other difficult and marginalized issues that are central to of religion research, PME, such as views regarding the value of life, the degree to which impairments do or do not diminish this value, the practical and spiritual implications of revisions pediatric suffering, and the pursuit of a path of care that is in the child’s best interest while respecting the child’s emerging capacity to make reasonable decisions that may be contrary to the decisions of the parents. People who engage in PPC and PME also tend to exhibit similar personality characteristics: good collaborative communication skills, a manner of interpersonal interactions perceived by others as especially respectful and kind, an often broadly ecumenical personal world view, and an openness to both joy and sadness. This is not to say that PPC and warfare report PME practitioners have a corner on the market of any of revisions these characteristics, or exhibit all of ap macroeconomics essay them to an exemplary degree, but these characteristics do seem to cluster in phd thesis both of these sets of practitioners. This clustering may be driven by individual self-selection, based on revisions one’s sense of personal interests and strengths, or by the encouragement of others. The overlap of revisions PPC and PME, in terms of both core content concerns and personnel with interest and of religion research aptitude, presents several advantageous opportunities. Shared Collaborative Communication Skills. A core set of collaborative communication skills enables PPC and PME personnel to phd thesis revisions, have productive and sometimes transformative encounters with patients, parents, and other health professionals. Collaborative communication can help to clarify everyone’s (often differing) sense of the clinical situation, explore and support feelings of hope, fear, and frustration, examine the rationale and goals of need help care, and formulate consensus treatment plans. Such collaborative communication, when empowered by emotional intelligence, can promote a common sense of purpose and respect, and can create shared agendas out of apparent conflict.
Having personnel who are particularly adept at collaborative communication use this skill in both the practice of phd thesis revisions PPC and PME is a sensible use of psychology of religion research a valuable and sometimes limited resource. The fields of phd thesis revisions PPC and PME can provide cross-fertilization regarding skills and intellectual agendas. The specific collaborative communication challenges confronted by practitioners in either PPC clinical consultation or PME ethics consultation can promote the paper, further growth and development of revisions these practice skills in need ways that can benefit either realm of practice. The 2 disciplines also have, as noted, many common areas of interest, presenting opportunities for scholarly or research collaboration. Some organizations combine palliative care and medical ethics programs, housing them underneath 1 administrative umbrella. This arrangement, which seems sensible given the overlap of PPC and PME outlined here, permits the colocation of like-minded colleagues and efficient use of support staff and joint program resources. The overlap of PPC and PME also presents certain challenges that need to be recognized and managed.
Potential Conflict With Colleagues. PPC sometimes involves conflict among health care colleagues, and PME consultation sometimes is sought to address and resolve these conflicts. To the degree that members of the PPC team are also members of the PME consultation service, the handling of the phd thesis, case by the PME consultation service may appear to be influenced by a conflict of collegial interests. The potential for such conflicts exists regardless of which configuration of colleagues is involved. For example, overlap of the ap macroeconomics essay, PME consultation service with members of the neonatal, pediatric, cardiac, or surgical ICU staffs would all raise similar concerns. Although these concerns motivate some to call for PME consultation services to be staffed by individuals outside of the revisions, hospital or organization, such staffing models raise other practical concerns, while still not necessarily dissolving all potentially influential interpersonal relationships. Potential Conflict of Commitments. At a deeper level, PPC represents a certain stance regarding the goals of medical care. 2002. 11 , 12 This stance can be best summed up as follows: “to cure when possible, to revisions, comfort always.” This philosophy of care is just broke, often accompanied by a deep sense of purpose and phd thesis personal mission, which can be good or bad.
A powerful sense of mission motivates practitioners of both PPC and PME to plunge into difficult emotional situations. If one’s commitment to broke, this sense of personal mission is very strong, however, then the revisions, ability to take on the perspectives of others (which can be critical for exploring and understanding the ethical dimensions of difficult clinical situations) may be compromised. Help With Resume. Again, this challenge is not unique to revisions, those who practice PPC. Neonatologists and oncologists, intensivists and cardiologists, surgeons and general pediatricians all may have deep personal and philosophical commitments that need to be managed when engaging in ethics consultation. Similarly, health care personnel who perform PME consultation are often committed to a deliberative process that may be at odds with the pace of decision-making required by a particular case, or to the attainment of consensus, which may not be possible in all cases. Potential Delay or Underuse of PME. Although PME clinical consultations sometimes identify unmet PPC needs, and thereby result in a PPC consultation, the opposite revisions, does not occur as frequently: PPC consultation rarely results in a subsequent PME consult. While such a chain of events does occur from phd thesis, time to time, PPC staff, given their collaborative communication skills (and for some, their formal training in PME or involvement in PME consultations), may be able to warfare book, manage most of the ethically challenging cases (but not all of phd thesis revisions them) and thus run a risk of not drawing on the resources and potential benefits of PME consultation in ap macroeconomics 2002 a timely manner. This may be especially true for cases in phd thesis which PPC staff have forged a strong therapeutic relationship with the patient or family, yet other clinicians are nonetheless struggling with a sense of moral distress.
PME consultation in these situations can provide a forum for dialogue, enhanced team-wide understanding of the goals of care, and ultimately better therapeutic relationships across the entire health care team. Potential Undervaluation of PPC Medical Expertise. To meet the needs of children living with life-threatening conditions and their families, PPC demands a thoroughgoing knowledge of advanced pain and not poor broke symptom management, as well as a firm understanding of the disease processes that cause serious pediatric illness. PPC practitioners also need to have high-functioning relationships with community-based hospice and home nursing agencies. Equating PPC only with communication and decision-support (which is to say, with the components of PPC that most overlap with PME) is to misunderstand the scope of medical expertise that PPC requires. Potential Limitation of the Scope of Medical Ethics.
Conversely, too much emphasis on phd thesis revisions the ethical issues that arise in the care of research paper children who have serious life-threatening illness limits the scope of all the topics that PME should address. Many medical ethics issues are far afield from end-of-life dilemmas, ranging from the ethics of expanding newborn screening programs and other innovations emerging from phd thesis revisions, genomic-based medical practice, to the quotidian challenges of access to high-quality care or the detrimental effects on long-term wellbeing of exposure of children to poverty or violence. Ethicists worry about the research, regulation of research, about enhancement therapies, and about the phd thesis revisions, policy issues and looming challenges of intergenerational distributive justice. Furthermore, PME has not only an important role in phd thesis revisions performing clinical consultations, but also a vital role in the formulation or review of a wide variety of phd thesis hospital policies that extend beyond the domain of PPC, as well as the provision of ethics education to psychology of religion research paper, members of the health care staff across the revisions, range of PME topics. With these thoughts regarding opportunities and challenges in mind, we offer the following set of recommendations about managing the relationship between PPC and PME. Define Clear Roles and marketing warfare Promote Role Identification. Health care personnel involved in both PPC or PME, like all other health care personnel, need to revisions, be clear in their own minds regarding the clinical role that they are entrusted to fulfill in the care of patients and families, and be explicit when communicating the nature and expectations of this role to phd thesis, patients and phd thesis parents. If, in the passage of resume time and turn of events, a health care professional moves from one role to another in the care of a patient, this role transition also has to be recognized inwardly, and communicated clearly to patients, family members, and others.
Identify Clear Consultation Trigger Questions. Both PME and phd thesis revisions PPC clinical staff should, when going about plan their consultative duties, pose to themselves (and potentially other health care staff as well as patients and families) a few questions to prompt recognition or awareness that the phd thesis, other consultative service might be beneficial. Marketing Warfare. For PME staff, some useful questions are: Does this patient have unmet pain or symptom management needs? If the patient has serious illness, are the goals of care clear? Is the patient in a failing state of health with no single clinical service providing guidance, in partnership with the patient and family, about how to proceed with care? For PPC staff, questions might include: Is there any debate about what is the “right thing” to do to phd thesis, help this patient? Is this debate at the level of dissension or discord?
Are the patient or family feeling that they are not being heard? Are members of the clinical staff reporting feeling uncomfortable with the care that is being provided, or even a strong sense of moral distress? If now is not the “right time” to ap macroeconomics, request a PME consultation, what events or discussions would indicate that the right time has indeed arrived? Weekly team meetings of PME staff, monthly ethics committee meetings, and weekly interdisciplinary PPC team meetings are good occasions to pose or to phd thesis revisions, revisit these questions. These meetings can essentially provide a level of clinical supervision to these realms of overlapping practice. Similarly, health care personnel involved in PME need to develop criteria that can provide prompts or guidance about marketing warfare report when to recuse oneself from a PME ethics consultation. Individual PME providers may find themselves involved in an ethics consultation on a case in which they are intimately involved as a medical provider. Ideally, ethics consultants should bring an revisions impartial perspective to each consult, which can be more challenging if that individual is also providing clinical care to the patient. PME consultants who also provide direct patient care need to be able to recognize the limitations to their objectivity in these circumstances and appreciate the value of calling in an outside consultant in such cases. Maintain Organizational Distinction.
Clarity of roles extends beyond the context of direct patient care: PPC teams and PME consultative services should have different names for business plan these distinct organizational roles, along with separate budget lines and reporting structures. As noted, locating PPC and PME services under one administrative umbrella can increase efficiency through resource sharing. Phd Thesis Revisions. At the same time, clear separation needs to be maintained between the two, as they serve different roles within the warfare book report, organization, and if the distinctions are blurred organizationally they are more likely to be blurred at the bedside. Additionally, for some of the most ethically challenging cases, distinct PPC and PME services may need to be an organization double-check (or potentially a check-and-balance) for each other. Revisions. Indeed, for such cases, PPC and PME staff can potentially role model how to address differences of opinion among health care staff regarding the ap macroeconomics essay, best course of action, engaging in discussion that is respectful and vigorous, listening and challenging, sensitive and searching. Build and Maintain a Broad Scope of Work. At the national level, the fields of both PPC and PME are promulgating practice guidance and standards, such as have been articulated by the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding PPC and phd thesis PME consultation and hospital ethics committee work, 13 , 14 and as are set forth in an increasing number of textbooks and professional society guidelines. 15 – 19 At the local level, within hospitals and report health care systems, PPC and PME programs should identify their own practice standards, including their scope of practice, and monitor whether their performance drifts over time to unduly focus on one area of their intended scope of practice while neglecting others. The relationship between PPC and PME, arising from historical, cultural, and social underpinnings, is too important to phd thesis revisions, leave to chance.
On balance, we believe that the relationship offers substantial opportunities for the better care of the patients we serve and restructuring plan their families. Phd Thesis. To achieve that lofty goal, professionals in both fields must be mindful of the challenges that need to be managed in terms of organizational structure, role expectations, and reflective practice. Accepted November 12, 2013. Marketing Warfare Book. Address correspondence to Chris Feudtner, MD, PhD, MPH, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market St, Rm 1523, Philadelphia, PA 19104. E-mail: feudtner email.chop.edu. Dr Feudtner conceptualized and phd thesis drafted the initial manuscript; Ms Nathanson critically reviewed and added content to the draft manuscript and revisions edited the manuscript; and both authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose. FUNDING: No external funding. POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose. Morrison W , Derrington SF . Stories and the longitudinal patient relationship: what can clinical ethics consultants learn from palliative care? J Clin Ethics . Phd Thesis Revisions. 2012 ; 23 ( 3 ): 224 – 230 pmid: 23256402.
Carter BS , Wocial LD . Ethics and ap macroeconomics 2002 palliative care: which consultant and when? Am J Hosp Palliat Care . 2012 ; 29 ( 2 ): 146 – 150 pmid: 21665855. Delivoria-Papadopoulos M , Levison H , Swyer PR . Intermittent positive pressure respiration as a treatment in severe respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child . Revisions. 1965 ; 40 ( 213 ): 474 – 479 pmid: 5318721. Lantos JD , Meadow W . Neonatal Bioethics: The Moral Challenges of Medical Innovation . Ap Macroeconomics 2002. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press ; 2006. Burns JP , Edwards J , Johnson J , Cassem NH , Truog RD . Phd Thesis Revisions. Do-not-resuscitate order after 25 years. Ap Macroeconomics 2002 Essay. Crit Care Med . Revisions. 2003 ; 31 ( 5 ): 1543 – 1550 pmid: 12771631. Bluebond-Langner M . The Private Worlds of Dying Children . Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ; 1978. Pless JE . The story of Baby Doe. N Engl J Med . 1983 ; 309 ( 11 ): 664 pmid: 6225020. Angell M . Handicapped children: Baby Doe and Uncle Sam.
N Engl J Med . 1983 ; 309 ( 11 ): 659 – 661 pmid: 6225018. Lantos J . Baby Doe five years later. Psychology Research. Implications for child health. N Engl J Med . 1987 ; 317 ( 7 ): 444 – 447 pmid: 2956518. Callahan D . The Troubled Dream of Life . In: Search of revisions a Peaceful Death . New York : Touchstone ; 1993. Cassell EJ . The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine . 2nd ed. New York : Oxford University Press ; 2004. Byock I . The Best Care Possible: A Physician's Quest to Transform Care Through the End of research Life . New York : Avery ; 2012. American Academy of Pediatrics. Phd Thesis Revisions. Committee on Bioethics . Institutional ethics committees.
Pediatrics . 2001 ; 107 ( 1 ): 205 – 209 pmid: 11134464. American Academy of Pediatrics . Section on Hospice and phd thesis revisions Palliative Medicine and Committee on Hospital Care, Feudtner C, Friebert S, and phd thesis Jewell J. Pediatric palliative care and hospice care: commitments, guidelines, and recommendations. Pediatrics . 2013 ; 132 ( 5 ) : doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2731. Wolfe J , Hinds PS , Sourkes BM . Textbook of Interdisciplinary Pediatric Palliative Care . 2002 Essay. Philadelphia : Elsevier/Saunders ; 2011. Goldman A , Hain R , Liben S . Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children . 2nd ed. Oxford, New York : Oxford University Press ; 2012. Carter BS , Levetown M , Friebert SE . Palliative Care for Infants, Children, and Adolescents: A Practical Handbook . 2nd ed.
Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press ; 2011. Hester DM . Ethics by Committee: A Textbook on Consultation, Organization, and Education for phd thesis Hospital Ethics Committees . Marketing Report. Lanham, MD : Rowman Littlefield Publishing ; 2008. American Society for Bioethics and Humanities' Core Competencies Update Task Force . Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation: The Report of the phd thesis revisions, American Society for Bioethics and Humanities . Glenview, IL : American Society for not poor just Bioethics and Humanities ; 2011. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of phd thesis Pediatrics. Copyright (c) 2017 by American Academy of Pediatrics.
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Feeling stupid. And for some, it radically alters their trajectory of their adult lives. Unfortunately, too many students have to phd thesis, recover from school once they graduate. Is this really what we want for them? I used to teach this way.
In all honesty, I have to admit that I used to believe in this academics-oriented system. For too many years my students sat in straight rows. I asked the questions. I had the answers. I controlled the learning. Phd Thesis Revisions. The truth is I did this because it#8217;s what I knew. It#8217;s how I#8217;d been trained. Phd Thesis. It#8217;s what I saw replicated in universities and in other teachers#8217; classrooms. I sincerely believed that good grades mattered. Phd Thesis Revisions. I#8217;m an English teacher, and I subscribed wholeheartedly to the belief that the phd thesis revisions pinnacle of success in psychology of religion English was the ability to write #8220;the essay.#8221; But I#8217;ve radically changed my position.
I#8217;ve come to believe that the traditional essay is one of the most useless things we teach our students. Recently, I#8217;ve started to ask people I know, #8220;Do you ever write an phd thesis essay?#8221; I#8217;ve never had one person say yes. Just Essay. I wonder how many teachers, except those who are taking university classes (or writing an opinion piece like this), ever write true essays. If I may be so bold, I wonder how many English teachers frequently write essays. I#8217;m not saying our kids shouldn#8217;t be able to phd thesis, write. On the contrary, I think our students should be able to argue gracefully and persuade powerfully. Psychology Of Religion Research. They also need to know what they believe and why. I simply think the essay is a medium that has outlived its usefulness, at least in phd thesis high school. Academics for the academicians.
I#8217;ve come to realize that being #8220;academic#8221; doesn#8217;t tell you much about yourself. It tells you you#8217;re good at school, which is fine if you plan to just broke essay, spend your life in revisions academia, but very few of our students do. Warfare Book Report. It doesn#8217;t indicate whether or not you#8217;ll be successful in revisions your marriage, raising your kids, managing your money, or giving back to your community. All things that matter much more than being good at school. School should be a place where kids can discover what they love. They should be able to ask the questions that matter to psychology research, them and pursue the answers. They should discover what they are passionate about, what truly sets their hearts and souls on fire.
They should discover they can make a difference now. Above all, they should leave school knowing what they are good at. Today, I think most kids graduate only knowing if they#8217;re good at school or not. Often our students have many talents; they just don#8217;t fit in phd thesis revisions our current curriculum because their talents are likely not considered #8220;real knowledge.#8221; And what is that? In the Biology curriculum that I#8217;ve taught for the past several years, one of the research objectives that my students need to know is earthworm reproduction. Really? Out of all the things we could be teaching a 17-year-old about biology, someone (a whole panel of someones, we can guess) decided earthworm reproduction was essential? Our students lose their curiosity. We are born curious. Phd Thesis Revisions. Babies explore their environments to learn; they do it naturally without being told.
Three-year-olds constantly, at times annoyingly, ask, #8220;why?#8221; And yet, by business restructuring plan, the time my students arrive in Grade 10, they have all but lost their curiosity. Consequently, when I get a new class of students, we start by phd thesis revisions, unlearning . We begin by imagining what school could be , instead of what they#8217;ve known for 10 years. Only then can we move into the work that will help them become lifelong learners who truly enjoy the search for answers, rather than the marketing book report mark at the top of their exam. Recently I#8217;ve been reading Amanda Lang#8217;s The Power of Why . In it she states: Curious kids learn how to learn, and how to enjoy it and revisions, that, more than any specific body of knowledge, is what they will need to have in the future. The world is changing so rapidly that by the time a student graduates from university, everything he or she learned may already be headed toward obsolescence. The main thing that students need to know is not what to think but how to not poor just broke, think in order to face new challenges and solve new problems (p.14). Phd Thesis Revisions. Learning how to learn and fail and learn some more.
Our school system doesn#8217;t need to help resume, create kids who are good at school. Instead, we need to create an revisions environment that engages learners, fosters creativity, and puts responsibility for learning where it belongs with our students. Instead of rote learning, teachers need to 2002, use content to teach skills. We need to revisions, build environments that allow our students to get messy and build things. Places where students learn how to learn, and know how they learn best. Where students engage in significant research, and help with, learn how to phd thesis revisions, identify credible resources amidst a plethora of marketing warfare book report information that, at revisions times, may seem overwhelming. Furthermore, our students need to be able to problem-solve, innovate and fail over and over again. Throughout all of this, our kids should be collaborating with each other, as well as virtually with students across the globe. They need to phd thesis, be able to phd thesis revisions, communicate powerfully using the mediums of print, photography and video.
Three questions to need with resume, guide student-driven learning. As I#8217;ve worked with my students, we#8217;ve come to realize they need to be able to answer three questions, regardless of what we#8217;re researching: What are you going to learn? How are you going to learn it? How are you going to show me you#8217;re learning? How they get to this last question is often their decision. And what they come up with never fails to surprise me. Revisions. My classroom hasn#8217;t always looked like this.
But over the past three years we#8217;ve shifted to a constructivist pedagogy that has transformed not only my thinking, but my students as well. Now we learn in an inquiry, PBL, tech-embedded classroom. Warfare. The journey at times has been painful and messy, but well worth the revisions work. The biggest lesson I#8217;ve learned is psychology of religion research paper, that my students will often exceed my expectations, if only revisions, they#8217;re given the chance. Latest posts by Shelley Wright (see all) Are You Ready to paper, Join the Slow Education Movement? - August 26, 2014 Academic Teaching Doesn#039;t Prepare Students for phd thesis Life - November 7, 2013 Start with Why: The power of student-driven learning - June 21, 2013. I couldn#8217;t agree more!
When I made the transition from conventional education to Montessori, I didn#8217;t quite get it. But after teaching using the Montessori method, and raising my son in a Montessori environment, it has become more and more clear that conventional education is producing test takers, not thinkers. Those who think and research paper, question are often quieted while those who test well are promoted. Revisions. Test takers, sheep, lemmings#8230;they#8217;re all followers. The thinkers will be our leaders. I think you should be more careful in calling kids who have mastered test taking followers and psychology of religion research paper, lemmings. These kids might be very creative, but in a way that has allowed them to phd thesis revisions, creatively navigate the system of conventional learning. Marketing Book Report. I agree with #8220;Studen#8221;. Just because someone is phd thesis revisions, intelligent and just, can pass a test successfully shouldn#8217;t label them as #8220;sheep, lemmings#8221; or #8220;followers.#8221; That fallacy doesn#8217;t make sense what so ever.
I bet it takes a lot of intelligence to memorize dozens of names, dates, and equations. Phd Thesis. There is a difference between #8220;Intelligence#8221; and #8220;Knowledge#8221; that most people do not understand because they have become mindless sheep. Wow Shelley great post. This goes to the core of what I#8217;m currently teaching parents and industry as to why our young 18+ are disengaged and don#8217;t know how to connect their talents to creating real world opportunities and life paths that they love. Please let me know if there is any way I can ever help or support you.
I grew up in public school and phd thesis, hated every moment of it. The socializing, cruelty, hypocritical and moody teachers, favoritism. The list goes on. I was born with autism and it was never diagnosed. I am actually glad for it because I don#8217;t believe a label defines a person anyway. ANd it is what helped keep me separate from the other classmates in many ways. I did not conform to the school environment. It was my idea that I was there to learn. Help With. That#8217;s all. I did have a few good friends. But that didn#8217;t justify being there.
I eventually became truant many times. And my #8220;time off#8221; was used at home to teach myself. I would be out of school for a month, and then come back and make straight A#8217;s and win the spelling bee championships. Excelling introduced me to revisions, the spotlight and need with resume, envy. I hated every second of it. Talk about lack of phd thesis revisions humility and modesty for book report anyone who succeeds in phd thesis revisions the world#8217;s eyes. Years later I even got three college degrees, which gave me nothing more than a pile of debt. If I could do it over again, I would never have gone to college at help with resume all. My wife of 20 years and I have three school aged children. The oldest is in 8th grade.
I homeschooled her every other year for the past several years. She is back in public school this year. I let her go back because of revisions a spiritual journey she is on. Its been a rough ride for me as a parent. But this will be her very last year in public school because high school is the psychology of religion research last stage in programming a child to be #8220;of#8221; the revisions world. Such a bad influence it is. Yes. Phd Thesis Revisions. I consider myself a servant of GOD. Phd Thesis. And a follower of Christ. I dare not use the word Christian because of what labeling does. Our two little ones are 4 and 6 years old.
They have never stepped foot in a classroom. And they never will. I would guess about 75% of what a child learns in ap macroeconomics school will be forgotten by the time they are 18 years old. I told my oldest one day that she likely knows much more academically than her grandmother ever knew. But she knows nothing in the way of wisdom. And she will never learn anything wise in school. Long ago, kids were influenced by both the Holy Bible and lessons in etiquette. Most kids today are influenced by neither. This makes them a threat to morality, which is revisions, comprised of time tested wisdom. A necessity in life.
But as we see with society, everything has been washed out in corruption and phd thesis revisions, the filth of greed infested people who use a monetary system to enslave everyone else into maintaining a status quo that revolves around power and phd thesis revisions, control. Need Help With. I have absolutely no use for promoting these entities. And they all exist in the form of business. When we allow ourselves to get a 9 to 5 job, working for some rich or corrupted entity, we empower them by promoting them. And for what we get in return, it ends up in the hands of some other rich entities, therefore empowering them as well.
Ultimately we end up playing the indentured slave, aiding and abetting the enemies. Worst of all, we made the choice to do so. This becomes the basis of our existence. How does GOD see all this? He knows YOU made the choice to serve the world instead of Him.
You might ask the question. #8220;Well, how am I going to survive or raise my family without a job?#8221; Look into what is being coined as #8220;off the grid#8221; living. It is phd thesis revisions, essentially a return to roots. Moving out of the restructuring mainstream home and into an RV or homestead that isn#8217;t connected to the government or corporate wires. Phd Thesis Revisions. GOD gave us rain to catch and use. He didn#8217;t give us a county water line. He gave us sunlight and the Earth. He didn#8217;t give us the electric company. Everything He gave us is FREE. Everything society gives us isn#8217;t.
The best thing GOD#8217;s wisdom ever led me to do was to get my family out of the not poor just mainstream living scheme. We abandoned out house and moved into a cheap used RV. This was to free up our precious resources. The idea was to revisions, exploit the dreadful monetary income to work AWAY from that income instead of being enslaved by not poor just essay, it. Phd Thesis Revisions. We saved for phd thesis revisions over a year while living in that RV. With it, we bought a piece of phd thesis land far away from town and with a lot of trees.
We lived in the RV on that land for a couple more years. In the 2002 meantime, we worked the land into a sustainable homestead. Livestock, gardening, rainwater catch systems, and more. Well enough to canne and store all our food and plenty left over to sell cheaply or give away to phd thesis revisions, those in need. In a year#8217;s time, we had enough income just from the land to of religion research paper, pay taxes and buy necessities. In time, we saved enough to build a concrete, stucco home all bermed in Earth to keep it warm in the winter. We have skylights for the day, and LEDs and revisions, solar panels for the night. Need. And the panels were cheap ones. We don#8217;t absolutely rely on electricity at all.
This is the #8220;old way#8221; of living combined with very little modernism. We even wash out clothes outside most of the time. We designed the house with an oversized bath/shower room that includes a laundry area. The whole floor is concrete with a drain. Revisions. We can dump water on it. So washing clothes and hanging them inside is 2002 essay, no problem. The bath and kitchen water supply works the phd thesis revisions same as conventional. Except its all gravity driven from the underground tanks up on the hill. Those also feed out irrigation system for psychology of religion the gardens and animals. As well as a spout outside for hoses. The tanks are located at a distance.
So they build up as much pressure as we got from the phd thesis county. The government sees us as living in revisions poverty. But we are richer than most people in spirit and have more than we need. Our kids have found virtues that most children today will never have the opportunity to find. It saddens me at how society is purposely failing children just to promote Satan#8217;s hatred for GOD and His Creation. And since GOD created all people, they aren#8217;t inherently evil. Phd Thesis Revisions. They are just deceived. The Bible describes them to be FOOLS. Need With. And that they are because they don#8217;t know any better.
Children are born with hearts of fools. ANd it takes someone wise to raise them wise. A fool begets a fool. And many grownups today are fools trying to raise wise children. They will fail. And they are. The churches cannot save you.
YOU must make a major sacrifice. Walk away from society. Stops promoting it. It makes you a hypocrite and GOD knows it. Jesus did not conform to society. And He was persecuted for revisions it.
ALL people who do not play along with society will be persecuted more and more as time progresses. As we can see today, good things are considered bad in phd thesis revisions society. And what was always considered bad is not considered good. Phd Thesis Revisions. Like porn and homosexuality. What does all this have to do with kids learning academics? Everything. The roots are the most important and strongest influence over need help a person#8217;s life. This refers to childhood. Anyone can learn math and english later in life.
Those things are of very limited importance early in life. What is more important is wisdom. Because that is the ultimate driving force in serving GOD. We shouljd not wear fools shoes. The obsession with academics today is another scheme to phd thesis, distract children away from what is important in ap macroeconomics 2002 this life.
If they do not gain the insight while they are young, it#8217;ll take a miracle for phd thesis revisions them to find out later. Restructuring Plan. Again, raise a fool as a fool, and you end up with a fool. Phd Thesis. Society can trick them into all kinds of things. Revisions. They don#8217;t want you to be wise. But because we DO know that being wise is important, society redefines words to phd thesis revisions, trick us into believing we are wise when we are not.
A good example of this is Richard Dawkins or similar persons who believe they are truly wise for the things they know. Yet, they know NOTHING at all when it comes to not poor just broke, GOD#8217;s knowledge. All the math and science in the world is of no importance. Most people that work blue collar jobs don#8217;t know anything about math and science. Because they don#8217;t need it. Kids should only phd thesis revisions, know #8220;practical#8221; academic knowledge as it pertains to life. Business Restructuring. Need to count your money?
Need to count the cards? How many people are in revisions the room? No child needs algebra#8230;.EVER. Help With Resume. Just turned 18 and have the desire to be a rocket scientist? Then go to college and learn algebra. But leave the rest of the revisions kids alone!! My oldest admitted to me recently that she learned more at ap macroeconomics 2002 essay home than she has at school. Phd Thesis. She forgot the things she learned at school the last year she was there. But she has never forgotten the business restructuring wisdom and practical knowledge I have given to her. And that all comes from GOD. So tragic when you see the revisions increasing number of people who mock and deny GOD just because He doesn#8217;t sit in the room.
They don#8217;t recognize wisdom at all. It#8217;s terrible. Plan. The ignorance of today#8217;s youth surpasses that of phd thesis 20 years ago. We are now living during the time of Judgment. This I know for several reasons. The Bible foretells it. 2002 Essay. The dramatic increase in the sterilization of morals just in phd thesis revisions 15 years. The huge jump in restructuring transforming bad things into good. Such as porn and being gay. The increasing roadblocking of religion in schools.
The washing out of revisions religion altogether, even in Christianity. Causing it to be worldly and false and tolerant of evil. World events and warfare book, tragedies that are all signs listed in Revelation. Today is a precursor to a major event that is about to happen to the world. We cannot know if that will signal the end or what. We were already told that we cannot know. We are only allowed to see the revisions signs and NOT ignore them.
The fools of the world will not see them coming. Death should be enough to tell you that academics are of very little importance compared to nurturing the spirit. Thanks for reflecting aloud, Shelley. As you make your learning visible, you embolden colleagues to need help with, innovate and align professional practice with research and phd thesis revisions, student voice. I appreciate that you shine light on psychology beliefs and practices that need examination. Shelley, thank you for phd thesis sharing your insight. It#8217;s a wonderful piece and I#8217;ve linked to it on my weekly news round up about education. You can see it, and the other great articles from this week, here: http://www.livingequalslearning.com/learning-news-19-november-2013/ Thank you for an interesting article. Only practice, work and psychology paper, traveling can help a young person to understand what he/she needs in this life and how to use the knowledge from school. Revisions. Great writing! it helps me when I am preparing my lesson plan #8230;#8230; #8220;what are they(students) going take with them from my class for LIFE#8221;. 2002 Essay. Great I will give you the revisions best site link as you like links and that is why I am here and you know you have every post written in the same way as they do.
Karen Millen Dresses. It#8217;s an extraordinary publish. This post is very ideal for everybody. It is good to determine that also you will discover those that support other folks. Appreciate posting. Mont Blanc Pens. Yes this information is very thought provoking. I would like to see more financial literacy programmes in business plan schools for phd thesis revisions students between the ages of maybe 7-12 years of age.
One of the goals of education is to create a better lifestyle which would mean being able to handle money in a constructive way. Thanks for the post. I absolutely hated going to school. First and foremost is that I have a learning disability that I never knew I had and parents that felt it was the broke essay school#8217;s job to phd thesis, teach me. 2002 Essay. Second I never felt that any of the phd thesis information was relevant. It is only now that I#8217;m my thirtys that I have a desire to learn some of these things. lol. But just out of revisions curiosity and not for me to prove myself on phd thesis revisions some meaningless test. I wish school would teach values and ethics and morality. I wish it would prepare you for warfare book the future and not just you need to know this so that we can teach you this next year and blah blah blah .. there goes 13 years of phd thesis revisions your life down the tube. almost 20 if you go to research paper, a 4 year college. Phd Thesis Revisions. I do agree that everyone person should be literate. But beyond that I think should be entirely up to the person.
What do you need a college education for in a company that has you fill out not poor just forms or interact with people? School is a government entity and revisions, work is a private one. They aren#8217;t connected. People who succeed seemed to be people who are innovative or have a drive to go to the top with nothing stopping them (lying, cheating, stealing too). Nothing honestly in my life has prepared me for life. But that#8217;s okay. I#8217;ll manage. Psychology Research Paper. I thoroughly enjoyed this article.
It#8217;s so hard trying to push this type of change onto schools whose only concern is that their students pass their tests with flying colors versus actually learning and enjoying what they learn. I so agree none of the things as a 13 year old student am learning in school right now is completely irrelevant I have to do a book report I#8217;m thinking to revisions, myself right now when in my life am I going to do a book report like you said Shelly an essay when are students including myself going to write an essay up until I was 11 never even heard the word essay until my teacher Mr Wilcox said you guys are going to right a two page essay and it in 2 days from now and I was like what!? and psychology research, I have dreams about what I want to do in about 10 to revisions, 15 years time and marketing warfare book, its bringing dinosaurs back to life and nothing I am learning in school is helping me to do that I think the school systems have all learning subjects that are not on a certain period except for when you go and leave school and it has whatever students want to phd thesis, learn whether its the periodic table or is arsenic poison? so we can learn the things we need for book our dreams to come true like mine if the schools are possibly going to be like the way I am suggesting they should be it could make our dreams happen a lot faster here is an example lets say that you want to make a dinosaur like me but you do not have the education to phd thesis, do so and you need to know about rna dna genetics and so on and lets say your in marketing warfare book report 7th grade like I am now and you don#8217;t learn any of those thing that you need to phd thesis revisions, know to make it happen until lets say 12th grade that#8217;s 5 years waiting time until you learn that now that#8217;s a lot of time wasted now that#8217;s when a lot of people go and say well that#8217;s what googles for yeah their right but maybe not everybody has google or maybe you can only do that research after school and you don#8217;t want to waste your break because schools boring. it would be a lot more fun if we could learn what we want and have fun learning it like you said Shelly I want to make my dreams come true faster than they are going to of religion paper, and school is phd thesis, irrelevant and everything you learn in need help it is irrelevant too there has to phd thesis revisions, be change before any of the psychology research students in the 21 century succeed the way they feel they need to and should I am hoping that I can change the way schools work in a way that#8217;s best for everyone not just for the teachers who have that kind of job only to phd thesis, make a living thank you for reading my comment. Regarding your quote#8230;#8221;Consequently, when I get a new class of students, we start by unlearning#8230;.We begin by imagining what school could be, instead of 2002 what they’ve known for 10 years. Only then can we move into the work that will help them become lifelong learners who truly enjoy the search for answers, rather than the mark at revisions the top of their exam.#8221; Can you tell me more about that #8216;unlearning#8217; process? I#8217;m in revisions the midst of reimagining school for next year#8217;s incoming 700+ freshman, and phd thesis revisions, I#8217;d really like to know more about how you lay the foundation for kids who have spent their lives in a traditional system.
Academic Teaching Doesnaˆ™t Prepare Students for Life | miradespacio - [#8230;] See on plpnetwork.com [#8230;] Why Academic Teaching Doesn#8217;t Help Kids Excel In Life | MindShift - [#8230;] post originally appeared on the Powerful Learning Practice [#8230;] Learning in the News: 19 November 2013 | Living Equals Learning - [#8230;] English teacher Shelley Wright, a piece entitled Academic Teaching Doesn#8217;t Prepare Students for Life had me at, #8220;Academics. Most Reflection Week 9: Powerful Learning Practice: Academic Teaching Doesn#8217;t Prepare Students for Life | Mary Kate Duffy - [#8230;] found this blog post to be incredibly eye opening and inspiring. The author talks about psychology of religion, how #8220;academics#8221; [#8230;] Reflection Week 9: Learning the Academic Game | Miss Sarah Broddle - [#8230;] #8220;Learning the Academic Game#8221; was quite intriguing. He quoted another blog post titled #8220;Academic Teaching Doesn#8217;t Prepare Students for Reflection Week 6: Powerful Learning Practice Academic Teaching Doesn#8217;t Prepare Students for Life | Kyle Foerschler - [#8230;] that really have no bearing on my well-being, happiness, or even how to be a productive citizen Shelley got Why Academic Teaching Doesnaˆ™t Help Kids Excel In Life Mindshift | Munnsmulligan Why Academic Teaching Doesnaˆ™t Help Kids Excel In Life Mindshift | - [#8230;] The MindShift come with the phd thesis third question. Article written by Shelley Wright and originally written for Powerful Learning Practice Articles that struck a chord in November 2013 | tubarks - [#8230;] Academic Teaching Doesn't Prepare Students for Life by research paper, Shelley Wright. [#8230;] Dallas Jones Reflection Week 12:Assorted Stuff- Learning the Academic Game - [#8230;] approach is not the best path for all students. Phd Thesis Revisions. He backs this statement up from a post by the Powerful Week 6 critical question | lachygalileoblog - [#8230;] http://plpnetwork.com/2013/11/07/obsession-academic-teaching-preparing-kids-life/ 10/3/14 [#8230;] Critical Question: World Around Us | Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Figaro - [#8230;] http://plpnetwork.com/2013/11/07/obsession-academic-teaching-preparing-kids-life/ [#8230;] Education: A Chance to Teach Kids How to Live | Ellen Sanders-Raigosa - [#8230;] Wright, Shelley (2013, Nov 7). Academic Teaching Doesn’t Prepare Students for Life. Retrieved from http://plpnetwork.com/2013/11/07/obsession-academic-teaching-preparing-kids-life/ [#8230;] Raising Independent Followers Calm + Uncollected - [#8230;] This teacher, although still a teacher and offering , said it pretty well how academic teaching doesn#8217;t prepare students 5 Things That Really Matter in Your Child#039;s Education (Homeschooling Moms, Read This.) - Generation CedarGeneration Cedar - [#8230;] School should be a place where kids can discover what they love. They should be able to ask the The Web log of Jane Edwards - [#8230;] their knowledge. I found an broke essay interesting article from 2013 that highlights my thoughts titled “Academic Teaching Doesn’t Prepare Students The Real Problem with Academic Fraud Courtney Baker - [#8230;] Wright, S. Revisions. (2013, November 07). Academic Teaching Doesn#8217;t Prepare Students for book Life.
Retrieved April 29, 2016, from phd thesis http://plpnetwork.com/2013/11/07/obsession-academic-teaching-preparing-kids-life/ [#8230;] Making Learning Real: Why Home Education Begins In The Kitchen | Love2EncourageYou - [#8230;] Now, it#8217;s fair to say that there is some good to take from a standardized schooling system. There are Get your free digital copy of The Connected Teacher: Powering Up , plus you'll be subscribed to book report, all the latest professional learning content from phd thesis revisions Powerful Learning Practice, notifications when we have a sale on our online courses, and business restructuring plan, more.
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The Trail Of Tears American Indian Genocide. One of the most tragic events in the history of the United States, commonly known as Indian removal took place in the spring of 1838, when the Cherokee Nation commenced its tragic journey. In the phd thesis revisions perception of book report, White settlers and their political representatives, removal of Native Indians was a prerequisite for a territorial expansion and phd thesis, taking advantage of enormous mining and forestry resources. 'Those men and women who supported Indian removal often did so as a result of not poor essay, either outright racism or a desire to phd thesis revisions see local tribes assimilated into mainstream culture, as well as a misguided sense of patriotism and ambition for America. There is ap macroeconomics no sense or honor in pretending that the actions of the U.S. government were not cruel or suggesting that some Americans' hunger for expansion justified an assault on the country's first residents. '(Marsico, 2010, pp. 6,7) In this section I will discuss Native Indian tribes, commonly known as 'civilized tribes'. Revisions? The Civilized Tribes is a group of five tribes: the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. These groups were located in warfare, the south-eastern region of the United States. The reason that they became known as 'civilized tribes' by phd thesis revisions white settlers was that they adopted some of the business plan European and American customs, such as Anglo-American farming, educational and revisions, slave-holding practices. As a result of not poor, this, a term Civilized Tribes was coined by the whites. The tribe consisted of seven clans and a village was governed by two distinct political entities; the red and the white government, 'which respectively maintained power in times of war and times of peace.' (Marsico, 2010, p. 11) Tribal affairs were discussed by clan representatives in phd thesis revisions, so called council houses, which were seven-sided structures.
The Cherokee villages were politically organized in a loose confederacy. The village was governed by two chiefs. Restructuring Plan? The White Chief, also called the Most Beloved Man, supported the villagers on issues related to phd thesis farming, law-making, and essay, disputes among individuals, families, or clans. He also took part in religious rituals, accompanied by the Cherokee shamans. Revisions? The Red Chief had advisory role on warfare issues. The Cherokee territory was in book, the southern part of the Appalachian chain. Their villages were situated in the Great Smoky Mountains (present-day western North Carolina) and the Blue Ridge (present-day western Virginia and West Virginia), and in the Great Valley (present-day eastern Tennessee). Waldman argues that 'They also lived in the Appalachian high country of present-day South Carolina and Georgia, and as far south as present-day northern Alabama.
Cherokee people also probably lived in territory now part of Kentucky.' (WALDMAN, 2006, p. 51) The rivers and streams were not only contributing to revisions the richness of soil but also to the fishing. Phd Thesis Revisions? Cherokee were skilled fishermen who used spears, traps, and hooks. They also used to poison an area of a river and bring the unconscious fish to the surface. The Cherokee hunting skills were also impressive. They used bows and arrows for hunting deer and bear. 'To get close to the deer, they wore entire deerskins, including antlers, and phd thesis revisions, used deer calls to lure the animals to them. The Cherokee hunted smaller game, such as raccoons, rabbits, squirrels, and turkeys, with blowguns made from the hollowed-out stems of cane plants. Need Help With? Through these long tubes, the hunters blew small wood-and-feather darts with deadly accuracy from phd thesis, as far away as 60 feet.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 52) The pray was used for psychology paper clothing, as well. Phd Thesis Revisions? The wild plants had also significant role in ap macroeconomics, their nutrition, as well as berries, cherries, grapes, walnuts and chestnuts.
The Cherokee were also known as craftsmen. They made plaited basketwork and stamped pottery. 'They also carved, out of wood and phd thesis, gourds, Booger masks, representing evil spirits.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 52) On special occasions their leaders used to wear headdresses made of feather. Ceremonies were held inside council houses. Cherokee families lived in two houses, which is typical of people of the warfare book report Southeast. There were a summer house and winter home. The summer houses had rectangular shape with peaked roofs and walls made out of clay. Early encounters of the phd thesis European explorers with the Cherokee can be traced back to mid-sixteenth century. Of Religion? In 1540, Hernando de Soto, the Spanish explorer, who travelled throughout much of the Southeast, was the first European to come into contact with the Cherokee. Then, the English traders from the east appeared after England permanently populated Virginia, more precisely the Jamestown colony of 1607 and then the Carolina colonies. De Soto was in his pursuit of gold. The Cherokee villages were situated along rivers that enabled them cultivation of various crops, such as corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, and phd thesis, tobacco, which afterwards resulted in exchange between settlers and Cherokees.
The Europeans introduced Cherokees with trade. They traded, in exchange for food iron, liquor, rifles, and gunpowder. Ap Macroeconomics 2002? Apart from trade and innovations, contacts with the revisions Europeans brought the Cherokee tribes exposure to diseases such as smallpox and influenza, as well. This had a negative effect on the Cherokee population 'from approximately 30,000 prior to business plan the initial European contact to about 16,000 by revisions the onset of the eighteenth century.' (Marsico, 2010, p. 15) Although the just broke exchange between Cherokees and Americans was fruitful, the European colonists felt a great greed for Cherokees land. The French and Indian wars lasted from 1689 to revisions 1763. The Cherokee took side with the warfare report British against the French. Occasionally, they would fight side by side with tribes that were traditionally regarded as their enemies, such as the Iroquois.
The turning point took place in 1760, during the Cherokee War. The Cherokee revolted against their British allies in a dispute over wild horses in what is phd thesis now West Virginia. 'A group of Cherokee on their journey home from the Ohio River, where they had helped the British take Fort Duquesne, captured some wild horses. Some Virginia frontiersmen claimed the horses as their own and attacked the Cherokee, killing 12. Then they sold the horses and collected bounties on the Cherokee scalps, which they claimed they had taken from Indians allied with the French.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 53) As a result of this the with Cherokee bands, led by revisions Chief Oconostota, began raids on psychology of religion non-Indian settlements. The war ended after two years. Revisions? The British troops burned their villages and help resume, crops. The peace agreement was reached and enormous portion of their lands that was closest to British settlements was taken away. Despite of the Cherokee War, the Cherokee took side with the British against the rebels in phd thesis revisions, the American Revolution of 1775'83. Most of their support consisted of sporadic attacks on outlying American settlements. 'In retaliation, North Carolina militiamen invaded Cherokee lands and again destroyed villages and demanded land cessions.' (Waldman, 2006, p. Business Plan? 53) They allied with the Americans, fighting with them under Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1813. Cherokee chief Junaluska deserves all the credit for saving Jackson's life from a tomahawk-swinging Creek warrior at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Phd Thesis? In 1820, a republican form of government, having close resemblance of that of the United States, was established.
In the culture of the Cherokees work of Sequoyah, also known as George Gist, represents a turning point. In 1809, he commenced with a work on a written version of the Cherokee language and this advancement reflected on marketing book report a written constitution and publication of books, and phd thesis, newspapers. His twelve years of work produced a written system reducing the Cherokee language to 85 characters each representing a different sound. With? Years later, in 1827, the tribe wrote a constitution. 'The constitution established a centralized government, a supreme court and jury system, and a national police force.' (Bowes, 2009, p. 22) The first Cherokee newspaper, the phd thesis revisions Cherokee Phoenix, was published in their language in 1828. The Chickasaw ancestors lived in present-day northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, western Kentucky, and eastern Arkansas. The Chickasaw shared language and culture with the psychology Choctaw who lived in southern Mississippi. Both tribes had strong ties with the Creek living in the eastern part of Alabama and Georgia. The Chickasaw were in possession of phd thesis, a fertile floodplain, which was created by soil deposition when the Mississippi River overflows its banks. Ap Macroeconomics Essay? The moisture of soil enabled the floodplain to become suitable for farming. Revisions? The area was rich with wildlife.
The Mississippi and its tributaries provided the plan Chickasaw with fish. Phd Thesis? Their villages were built to keep them safe from floods. They planted corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, and melons. The Chickasaw practiced so called 'the law of hospitality.' This term was first introduced by an English trader, James Adair, who spent nearly 40 years living together with the Chickasaw. Business? In the 1700s, he wrote: 'The Spanish had early contacts with the Chickasaw.
Hernando de Soto led his expedition into their territory in 1541. True to the 'law of hospitality,' the phd thesis Chickasaw let the outsiders live among them. But de Soto tried to force the tribal chiefs into help with providing 200 bearers to carry his supplies.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 61) The Chickasaw first contacts with the English were in 1670, the year when the English colony of Carolina was founded. Those contacts enhanced trade of various goods between two nations. However, trade was extended beyond goods.
Indian captives were sold to the English. They ended up as slaves working on phd thesis sugar plantations in the Caribbean islands. By the 1690s, the Chickasaws became fully equipped with English guns. Those guns were used against their southern neighbors, the ap macroeconomics 2002 essay Choctaws. It is estimated that around 2,000 Choctaws were seized as captives and another 2,000 were killed. The Choctaws were an easy target for the Chickasaw attacks, since at that time; they were not armed with guns. This initiated a series of conflicts between Chickasaw and Choctaw. In the French and Indian wars, the Chickasaw took side with the British. The Chickasaw regularly attacked French travelers on the Mississippi between New Orleans and Canada. The Chickasaw were ordered to expel British traders by the French, who armed their allies, the phd thesis revisions Choctaw. Not Poor Just Essay? In return, the Chickasaw carried out phd thesis raids against just, both, the French and Choctaw.
As of 1699, presence of France on phd thesis the Gulf of Mexico coast was established. The Choctaws from that stage on came into possession of guns and that is how the of religion paper Chickasaw captive raids ended. They were powerful to the extent that they even halted traffic on the Mississippi for some time. The French conflict with the phd thesis Chickasaw was at its peak in 1736, 1741, and 1752. It was not until 1763 in the last of the French and Indian wars that the Chickasaw were defeated. It is need with believed that the Choctaw originated from Nanih Waiya, the Mother Mound, area near present-day Noxapater, Mississippi. It is phd thesis thought that the Choctaw were descendants of the early Mound Builders of the Southeast. The Choctaw were one of the largest tribes living in southern and central Mississippi, with some bands in with, Alabama, Georgia, and revisions, Louisiana as well. The Choctaw's language and culture are closely tied to the Chickasaw and the Creek. In contrast to other southeast Indians, the Choctaw had a more democratic system of governance, similar to the one of northeast Indians. Choctaw traders invented a simple trade language that was used in combination with sign language for communication with other tribes.
It is called the Mobilian Trade Language or Chickasaw Trade Language since the Mobile and Chickasaw used it. Villagers built winter and summer houses. 'To keep the winter houses warm families built fires, and to revisions keep them moist they poured water over revisions heated rocks.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 69) Turkey feathers were used to make threads to weave blankets. The Choctaw mainly depended on their fertile lands along the Mississippi River. Basic crops were corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, and melons. Hunting and need resume, fishing had less relevance to their frequent plantings and revisions, harvestings. The Choctaw were skilled craftsmen. They used to carve dugout canoes for fishing, and trading trips.
In the culture of The Choctaw and Chickasaw there was a practice of head deformation for aesthetic purposes. A hinged piece of need help with, wood was put to the foreheads of male infants to apply pressure over a period of phd thesis revisions, time. Choctaw men let their hair grow long. The males of most other Southeast tribes had quite different custom, they shaved their heads. The Chickasaw name for them was Pansh Falaia, meaning 'long hairs.' When it comes to leisure time activities The Choctaw are known for playing lacrosse, also known as Indian stickball.
The game is played in a way that players 'toss a leather ball between posts with sticks. Touching the ball with the hands and using the sticks to fight were forbidden, but just about not poor, everything else was fair play.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 70) Often, players would sustain injuries, even deaths, during lacrosse games. Dancing and phd thesis revisions, singing took place prior to the matches between two village teams. Villagers gambled many of phd thesis, their possessions because of placing bets on their teams. Song competitions were held, too. Villagers used to write songs, keeping their songs secret until performance time. A 'song thief' was name for those who spied on songs of another tribe. The Choctaw had a ritual of so called 'cry-time'.
This tradition involved placing the deceased on a scaffold. On that occasion family members went into retreat and mourned. The Choctaw tribal members practiced fasting. Once the phd thesis revisions corpse dried out in revisions, the open air, tribe members 'officially appointed as bonepickers, scraped the flesh away with their extra-long fingernails. Revisions? Then the bones would be buried.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 70) English traders named the psychology paper Native American tribe Creek, since most of their villages were built on woodland rivers and creeks. The Creek were a complex tribe, consisting of many different bands and villages with many names. The majority of their villages were situated along the banks of the revisions Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and 2002 essay, Chattahoochee Rivers. Their ancestors inhabited majority of territory of present-day Georgia and Alabama and small parts of northern Florida, eastern Louisiana, and southern Tennessee. Since they were one of the most widespread tribes, they represent the typical Southeast Indian culture. Revisions? The Creek, like Choctaw and Chickasaw, were descendants of the Mound Builders who lived in the Southeast.
The Creek had two branches, the Upper Creek, situated in Alabama, and the Lower Creek, mostly in Georgia. The most significant band of Creek that is used for referring to other groups as well is Muskogee. Muskogean language family was named after term Muskogee. Not Poor Just Broke? Among Muskogean-speaking tribes belong the revisions Alabama, Coushatta, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole, too. In history, the Creek Confederacy referred to the Alabama and Coushatta, the Muskogee and other Creek bands.
The Creek share many cultural traits with other Southeast Indian tribes. The Creek villages were situated by the rivers and phd thesis revisions, streams. Each village had a chief called a 'micco', who carried out duties similar to those of a modern-day mayor. In making decisions he relied on a council of elders and the Beloved Men. Phd Thesis? So called town crier was in psychology of religion paper, charge of announcing the decision to the other villagers. Each village consisted of 'red towns' and 'white towns.' 'In the 'red towns' lived the warriors who launched raids for purposes of honor and revenge; ceremonies such as war dances were held there. In the 'white towns' lived the peacemakers who kept track of alliances and gave sanctuary to refugees; ceremonies such as the signing of treaties were held there.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 84) Villages had a town square with earthen banks for spectators to sit. The ceremonies and games were held there. Their villages had a central circular house with clay walls and a roof about 25 feet high, the ceremonial lodge, and a shelter for the old and phd thesis revisions, the homeless. The houses were organized in clusters.
The villagers had a winter house, a summer house, a granary, and a warehouse. Each clan was named after an animal. Clan membership was determined by the mother. It was forbidden to marry someone within the same clan. The Creek like many other tribes were skilled farmers and hunters. One of the most important ceremonies in their culture was the Green Corn Ceremony also called the Busk, from the Creek word boskita, meaning 'to fast' was a ritual of renewal. It was held four to eight days at the end of the summer, the time when the ap macroeconomics essay last corn crop ripened. The shamans, elders and phd thesis, warriors all fasted. The purpose of the ceremony was a new start and forgiveness of business restructuring plan, all mistakes, except murder.
During this feast villagers would eat corn and take part in lighting of the Sacred Fire. On this occasion villagers also consumed the Black Drink, which is a tea made from different types of herbs and tobacco. Its consumption induced vomiting and it was believed that it purifies the body. The records indicate that as of 1715 they were called 'Creeks' by the English newcomers from phd thesis revisions, South Carolina. Their population at that time numbered about 10,000 in the Deep South. The establishment of South Carolina in 1670, the Creeks begun doing business with their new neighbors.
The new form of business was capturing and selling Florida Indians. 2002 Essay? However, those profits nearly vanished by 1715 and the trade of deerskins became the main source of profit. Until 1730s skins were deported from the port of Charleston, South Carolina, for English market. In exchange for deerskin, the Creek obtained kettle, guns, and rum. The name Seminole is derived from the Spanish word cimarr??n, meaning 'wild' or 'runaway.' Their ancestors lived in the north of Georgia and Alabama states, migrated southward during the 1700s. Supposedly, they were Creek Indians, who sought refuge from slavery from northern colonies that were at that time under British control. Upon their arrival to Florida, they were no longer called Seminoles, but Creeks. Phd Thesis Revisions? The majority of Lower Creeks from Georgia settled in Florida that was under Spanish control, at that time. By the early 1700s f the native tribes that existed in Florida, prior to the arrival of the Seminole, had been reduced as a result of the essay Spanish warfare or diseases.
Around 100,000 native Americans occupied Florida in the 1500s, and only 50 survived. In 1767 the Upper Creeks from Alabama arrived and established their settlements in the Tampa area. Phd Thesis? Shortly after that, in 1771, the first time name Seminole was used with regard to an actual tribe. In 1778 followed the settlements of the Lower Creeks and a small number of Appalachians. Restructuring? Owning black slaves was a practice that many tribes adopted in phd thesis, their attempt to assimilate their culture to the culture of the white settlers. However, the Seminoles never did and revisions, Africans slaves who escaped the Carolinas and Georgia built settlements along with the Seminoles in revisions, Florida, became known as the Black Seminoles.
Both, the Seminoles and Africans were united by not poor just broke essay their fear of slavery. 2. BACKGROUND CONTEXT. 2.1. The Creek War. In the colonial period, the Creek allied with the British in the French and revisions, Indian War of 1754'63. Creek warriors attacked the Choctaw, allies of the French. Broke Essay? They fought against phd thesis, the Cherokee, too. Bands of Creek also took side with British troops against the rebels in the American Revolution of 1775'83. As a consequence of that, huge portions of their lands in Alabama and Georgia were ceded by just the United States in 1790. Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee, counted on the British support in recovering possessions lost to settlers. He travelled to the south intending to warn native cultures of growing threats posed by the whites.
This led to formation of a group, within the Creek, so called the Red Sticks. 'The increasing divisions in Creek society led to bloodshed in 1812 when the traditionalists retaliated against the National Council's attempt to phd thesis punish Creeks involved in attacks against settlers. A Creek civil war erupted, with Red Sticks (as the traditionalists were called) launching attacks on the towns of Creeks friendly to white settlers.' (The Editors of Salem Press, 1995, p. 218) In return, the United States got involved into the war, despite the fact that U.S. was already at war with Great Britain. The Southern states roused to take revenge for the Fort Mims Massacre. The army of 5,000 militiamen, aided by resume Cherokees, and Creeks, under command of General Andrew Jackson destroyed completely two Indian villages: Tallasahatchee and phd thesis revisions, Talladega. The Red Sticks were first defeated at Fort Mims, in 1813, and then in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in March 1814. The same year Treaty of Fort Jackson forced Creek chiefs to give away 23 million acres of land that was in possession of both the need help with militant Red Sticks and the peaceful White Sticks. Some of Red Sticks managed to escape and settle in Florida. Along with Seminole they managed to remain undefeated, until the First Seminole War (1817-1818). 2.2. The Seminole Wars.
The aftermath of American Revolution brought even deeper division between the Seminoles and the United States. Many Seminoles relied on Britain for support. American settlers argued that Seminoles provided a refuge for runaway slaves. The Seminole became friends with escaped African-American slaves. The slaves were given shelter among Seminole families. Revisions? A fraction of psychology of religion paper, Seminoles held side with the Red Sticks faction of Creeks in the Creek War (1813-1814). After their defeat, many Red Sticks found shelter with the Seminoles in Florida. As a justification for leading an army out of Georgia, General Andrew Jackson used the runaway slaves, against the Seminole. This event initiated the First Seminole War of phd thesis revisions, 1817'18. Book? Prior to returning his troops north to Georgia, Seminole villages were completely devastated.
When Jackson was elected president, he intended to send the revisions Seminole to Indian Territory west of the business Mississippi River. Along with other Southeast tribes 3,000 Seminole were relocated westward by U.S. soldiers in the 1830s. When counting the phd thesis revisions Seminole casualties starvation and disease should be considered, too. Those who survived were not even allowed to stop and bury their dead. Phd Thesis? The Seminole who were not willing to revisions leave Florida begun a guerrilla war. The name for with their resistance was the Second Seminole War of 1835'42. The Treaty of Payne's Landing, was ratified by minority of Seminoles in May 1832. Indians were demanded to give up their Florida lands within three years and move westward. The U.S. Army arrived in 1835 to implement the treaty and found Indians unwilling to move and ready for war. Phd Thesis? The federal government lost 1,500 men and some 500 Seminoles managed to escape.
In 1842, the war ended and majority of Seminoles had been relocated from Florida to Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. A Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was based on disputes, largely over land, between whites and Seminoles who remained in Florida. Revisions? Since military patrols were in charge of capturing the Indians, it does not surprise that the Seminole population numbered about 200 at the end of Third Seminole War, in 1858. The Third Seminole War represents the last attempt of forced removal. 'Approximately three thousand Seminoles were removed to the Indian Territory, voluntarily or otherwise.' (The Editors of Salem Press, 1995, p. 469) 3. SOCIO-POLITICAL ASPECT OF THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT.
The Louisiana Purchase of phd thesis, 1803 paved the way for the removals of Indians that would follow. The eastern Indian communities, even then, presented a problem in the view of American politicians. The Jefferson administration bought from the French a vast region of land west of the Mississippi River, for $15 million, Thomas Jefferson had every reason to believe that such vast territory would pay off. Jefferson proposal was with regard to Indians who continued to occupy lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River that the Louisiana Territory could become a new home to these people. Even public, was misguided into thinking that the federal government would be helping the Indians, and that the Indians and their culture would eventually disappear, if they remained exposed to the whites. Paper? It was presented as a matter of choice, although it had very little to do with the harsh reality Native Indians were about to face. 3.1. The Indian Removal Act. The settlements of both the Europeans and the Americans from the early 1600s to phd thesis revisions the early 1800s were pushing the boundaries of the Indian territories further inland. Territorial expansion of the United States was often backed up by various treaties, laws and even some of ap macroeconomics 2002, legal rulings supported these actions.
From 1780's the U.S. Phd Thesis Revisions? Constitution had already contained articles granting 'Congress and the president exclusive control over Indian affairs. This essentially meant that each of the states was subject to federal regulations in its dealings with local tribes. Not Poor? ' (Marsico, 2010, p. 20) At the time, the state of revisions, Georgia was dealing with legitimate means to phd thesis dissolve the Cherokee Nation; the Congress passed the revisions Indian Removal Act (1830). It was Andrew Jackson who signed it into law on May 28, 1830. 'This act granted the executive the authority to 2002 essay negotiate land-exchange treaties with native nations residing within the boundaries of the United States. Cooperating nations would receive Western land in return for ceding their territory.
Thus ''Indian Territory'' in present-day Oklahoma was born.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 37) Even though the Indian Removal Act contained clauses regarding the protection of the revisions tribes that were subject to removal, it was carried out without this clause being enforced. At first glance, those Americans who believed that it would serve to the benefit of the Native Indians and would protect them of just broke, possible extinction even favored it. However, it raised much controversy among numerous organizations; especially the ones in the Northeast were hard opponents of the legislation. Some of the phd thesis revisions statesmen and senators opposed to the notions of removal. Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen of New Jersey was among the loudest opponents: 'We have crowded the tribes upon revisions a few miserable acres on our southern frontier,' he proclaimed.' (Bowes, 2009, p. 19) In spite of the opposition efforts, the passage of the Indian Removal Act in the House of Representatives was ensured by a vote of 102 to phd thesis 97. 'In the succeeding ten years the phd thesis revisions Atlantic and Gulf states were cleared of the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and phd thesis, Seminoles.
Some went resignedly, others at bayonet point.' (McNickle, 1973, p. 2002 Essay? 74) Early XIX century witnessed an increase in the number of non-Indian settlers. In 1820s, a number of the Choctaw migrated west of the revisions Mississippi. However, the majority was not willing to leave their homeland. The reason that some left voluntary was the, the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek that was signed between the 2002 essay Choctaw negotiators and phd thesis revisions, the government representatives Colonel John Coffee and Secretary of War John Eaton, on September 27, 1830. Need With Resume? This treaty is regarded as one of the largest transfers of land between U.S. Government and Native Americans. In sequence of events, this presents the first removal treaty enforced under the Indian Removal Act. Phd Thesis Revisions? The Choctaw gave away 11 million acres of the research Choctaw land in exchange for 15 million acres in the Indian Territory. The U.S. Congress ratified the Treaty in 1831.
The treaty contained a clause applicable to those who remained to obtain U.S. citizenship. Some 1,300 Choctaws, who remained in the state of Mississippi, became citizens of the United States. It is estimated that around 15,000 Choctaws left and found their new homes in the Indian Territory, i.e., state of phd thesis revisions, Oklahoma. Just Essay? The word Oklahoma is of Choctaw origin, meaning red people. On the grounds of the Curtis Act, their government was disassembled, as it was a precondition for acknowledging the revisions Oklahoma status of a state. Subsequently, the Choctaws ended up divided into two distinct groups: the Choctaw Nation of ap macroeconomics 2002, Oklahoma and the Mississippi Band of revisions, Choctaw Indians that gained federal recognition in 1945. The Mowa Band of Choctaw presently inhabiting state of Alabama is not recognized by the federal government. 3.2. Andrew Jackson.
Andrew Jackson was seventh President of the United States. He was born in 1767 in Waxhaw, South Carolina. He studied law. In 1788 he moved to Nashville. During his career, he worked as prosecutor, judge, Tennessee congressman and senator from 1823 to 1825. Of Religion Research? He fought as general in phd thesis, the War of 1812 defeating the Creek Indians in business plan, 1814 and the British at New Orleans in 1815.
Three years later, in 1818, he undertook another military assignment to chase off Seminole Indians into Spanish Florida. John Quincy Adams won the presidential elections of 1824. Phd Thesis Revisions? Four years later, Jackson defeated Adams and business, became the seventh president of the United States. Jackson was a founder of the Democratic Party. He supported extension of slavery into phd thesis the West. He was a political opponent of the Whig Party and Congress on matters such as the Bank of the United States. He was known for his rage. He used to challenge men to duels and sometimes even causing deadly consequences. During his military career, he fought against the Red Stick Creeks and phd thesis, Seminoles, and revisions, the War of 1812 in the Battle of New Orleans; he earned a status of revisions, a national hero. 'Jackson cultivated his military reputation as an ''Indian fighter.' He often acted as a loose cannon, disobeying orders or creating his own, in order to further the cause of Manifest Destiny, the spread of U.S. control over the North American continent.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 85) In Jackson's perception the greatest threat to settlement and revisions, expansion of the book United States, was the question of Native Indians.
In the eyes of the common man Jackson was regarded not only phd thesis, as a war hero, but also as one of their own, a common man. His presidential career, in two subsequent terms, lasted from March 4, 1829 to business March 4, 1837. Jackson is perhaps best known for providing the environment and tracing the revisions route for the Trail of psychology, Tears through the Indian Removal Act. The 'Indian fighter' ratified nearly seventy removal treaties. The majority of those treaties provided for relocation and primarily by the use of force of nearly 50,000 eastern Indians to Indian Territory with aim to make available millions of acres of land to white settlers. 'Although the Trail of Tears itself did not occur until the phd thesis revisions administration of Martin Van Buren, Jackson's former vice president and hand-picked successor, Jackson was responsible for restructuring providing the phd thesis revisions key ingredients necessary for removal to take place.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 86) Jackson's approach to the ''Indian question'' is perhaps best exemplified by psychology of religion research his ignorance toward judiciary and non-interference regarding Georgia's oppression of the Cherokee Nation. 'Georgia lawmakers devised a lottery system to redistribute Cherokee land to Georgia citizens. Phd Thesis Revisions? The Cherokees appealed to the national government, claiming that the Georgia state laws, by report violating the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation, also violated international treaties that the United States had made with the phd thesis Cherokees.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) According to John Marshall in case of Cherokee Nation versus Georgia, in 1831, the treaties with the Cherokee Nation were not to be regarded in terms of international treaties, instead native nations were to be regarded as ''domestic dependent nations.'' Further on, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Supreme Court did not have jurisdiction over this matter since the Cherokee Nation was not a foreign nation. Therefore, they were not entitled to ap macroeconomics 2002 sue in federal court that would eventually provide them with legal grounds for prevention of further cessions of their lands as well as their removal from revisions, tribal lands. However, this case was important as the Cherokees based on this interpretation of a legal matter decided to bring another case before the court.
The second case Worcester versus Georgia before the Supreme Court was in 1832. This case was initiated by white missionary Samuel Worcester who sued the 2002 state of Georgia on the grounds of imposing its laws over the Cherokee Nation. 'Georgia had passed an act that required all whites who lived within the Cherokee Nation to apply for a state permit and swear an oath of allegiance to Georgia.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. Revisions? 87) Worcester was a minister within the American Board of Commissioners for phd thesis revisions Foreign Missions. Phd Thesis? His non-compliance with the Georgia act resulted in subsequent arrest. He was tried and sentenced to four years of hard labor in a Georgia court. According to Marshall the relations with native nations were within a jurisdiction of the national government, therefore Georgia State was not entitled to intervene into restructuring plan an issue involving 'a group the United States had already recognized and agreed to phd thesis protect.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 87) The state of Georgia refused to release Worcester. 'President Jackson, the so-called old Indian fighter, is reported to have said in ap macroeconomics essay, response with reference to the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it (Mooney, 1900: 114).' (Russell, 1987, p. 116) However, none of the cases tried before the U.S. Supreme Court served its purpose and the Trail of revisions, Tears was inevitable.
President had at his disposal a discretionary power, to authorize forceful removal, since such clause was incorporated in many removal treaties and 2002, bills. Furthermore, those policies included the deadlines, and in some cases even prior to the expiry of the deadline, force was used, if deemed necessary. Whether enforcement of the bills justifies the revisions use of force is business disputable. Since historical sources indicate that vast majority of Indians opposed the removals, it was obvious that if government wanted to phd thesis revisions enforce removal bills, it had to be, by force. 3.3. The Treaty of New Echota.
The Treaty of New Echota was named after New Echota, the Cherokee capitol in Georgia, where it was signed. The United States as a result of this cession claimed the Cherokee lands in the Southeast in exchange for lands in Indian Territory and $15 million. Business Restructuring Plan? 'The U.S. Senate ratified the Treaty of New Echota by one vote, and on May 23, 1836, President Andrew Jackson proclaimed it in effect.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 55) About twenty thousand Cherokees were to voluntarily leave their homes as of May 23rd, 1838. Jackson remained firm and acted accordingly, The Treaty of New Echota had to be implemented, regardless of evident hesitations by his own men. U.S. Troops commander, initially appointed to implement the Treaty of New Echota, was General John Ellis Wool. Upon his arrival, he was faced with the protesting by phd thesis revisions the Cherokee to both, the process of disarmament and the Treaty, itself. Business? 'Wool asked to be relieved of his mission, and he was.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 55) In December 1837, the phd thesis revisions Cherokee were notified by marketing warfare book the government that the clause in the Treaty of phd thesis, New Echota under which, they were given deadline of two years from the ratification of the treaty, to leave, would be enforced. In early 1838, and A delegation headed by John Ross and other Cherokee leaders, paid a visit to Washington, D.C. to present the signatures of 15,665 Cherokees who were against need with, the Treaty of New Echota, but the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs had voted and authorized the Treaty implementation. 'The U.S. secretary of war told John Ross that Jackson no longer recognized any government among the Eastern Cherokees, and neither Ross nor anyone else would be allowed to challenge further the legitimacy of the removal treaty.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. Phd Thesis Revisions? 55) Approximately two thousand Cherokees, which is some 15 percent of the Cherokee Nation, acted out of their own will and phd thesis revisions, joined ''Old Settlers'' in Indian Territory, along with members of the Treaty Party. According to Jackson no further communications with John Ross, in writing or orally, on this matter is allowed.
When Jackson's second presidential mandate ended, the White House successor became, Martin Van Buren. He commenced his presidential duties in March 1837. Since he was vice president during Jackson's mandate, he made it known that he will stick with Jackson's policies. Out of sympathy with the Cherokee cause, citizens around the United States sent messages and petitions; however, Van Buren organized seven thousand soldiers to prepare for revisions action. 'Time had run out. Restructuring? On May 23, 1838, the military roundup of the Cherokee Nation began.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 57) The Cherokee were disarmed and General Winfield Scott was assigned to monitor their removal.
'On May 10, 1838, General Scott issued the phd thesis revisions following proclamation:' 'Cherokees! The President of the United States has sent me, with a powerful army, to cause you, in obedience to the Treaty of 1835, to join that part of your people who are already established in prosperity, on the other side of the of religion Mississippi. . . . The full moon of May is already on the wane, and before another shall have passed away, every Cherokee man, woman and child . . . must be in motion to join their brethren in the far West.' Scott's proclamation clearly outlined that no Cherokee would remain in the territory, they all had to 'move' and that Army would reassure the implementation of the Treaty, by force. 4. EXODUS OF NATIVE INDIAN TRIBES. 4.1. The Trail of Tears. It took four weeks in May and June, to carry out four military operations (Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama).
Approximately seventeen thousand Cherokees rounded up at phd thesis revisions gunpoint were removed to various containment camps designated for the Cherokee prisoners. Those camps proved to be inadequate as no basic sanitation was provided for broke the prisoners. The roundups were carried out in a way that took the Cherokees by surprise. Vast majority of families were separated, husbands from wives and children, and many had only their clothes on them, and all other possessions were left behind. 'John G. Burnett, a soldier involved with the roundup, described the operation: 'Men working in the fields were arrested and driven to revisions the stockades. Women were dragged from their homes by soldiers whose language they could not understand. Children were often separated from need help with, their parents and driven into the stockades with the sky for a blanket and the earth for a pillow. . Phd Thesis? . .' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 58) John Wool, though initially appointed as the military commander of the removal campaign was replaced by Major General Winfield Scott, also known as ''Old Fuss and Feathers,'' Scott was a renown veteran, he fought in the War of 1812, the business restructuring plan Blackhawk War and the Seminole Wars. ' Scott looked at revisions his mission without enthusiasm; when he realized that many of the revisions Georgia troops seemed as interested in killing the Cherokees as removing them, he realized the extent of the challenge he faced.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 57) The first exodus westward occurred from spring 1838 and lasted to the summer. The first groups marched the route of 800 miles.
The intense heat had deadly consequences for children and the elderly. The second exodus was in the fall and winter of 1838-39. Unlike the first exodus that was in the heat, the phd thesis second one was in the rainy season and for that reason the wagons sunk down in the mud, and with freezing temperatures and snow, the journey got even worse. Numerous reasons need to be taken into essay account when considering the Cherokee casualties, from disease, food shortages, and phd thesis, weather conditions to failure of the U.S. troops to protect the Cherokee from attacks by with bandits. Initially, the Cherokees were loaded on steamboats, taken down the Tennessee and Ohio rivers to the Mississippi and from there forced to take the land routes to Indian Territory. Indeed, a few thousand Cherokee were removed, as planned. Revisions? Since this removal was undertaken in the hottest season, due to marketing warfare sickness, human losses were enormous. the Cherokee National Council, John Ross along with other chiefs made a proposal to General Scott that the Cherokee be allowed to phd thesis revisions postpone the removal to the fall, when the weather is milder, to prevent further casualties. 'That request was granted, and in October, 1838, the Cherokee began to remove themselves, primarily over land, in not poor just, 13 recorded groups averaging about 1,000 people each.' (Russell, 1987, p. 117) The first and the second exodus in combination with the dreadful conditions of the confinement camps caused the deaths of nearly 4,000 Cherokee, which represents a quarter of their total number.
The death toll rose even with the arrival of the Cherokee in the Indian Territory, due to epidemics and continuous lack of food. Other Southeast tribes primarily the phd thesis Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole shared the destiny of the Cherokee. Perhaps the closest to the exact figures of Cherokee population, which was primarily affected by the Trail of Tears, is statistical information provided by just essay Russell Thornton. Revisions? According to Thornton: 'A census of the phd thesis Eastern Cherokees (sometimes called the revisions Henderson Roll) was conducted in 1835: it enumerated 16,542 Cherokees. Psychology Of Religion? By this time there may have been 5,000 Cherokees west of the Mississippi River: from phd thesis, 1828 to 1834, 2,802 Cherokees had registered for removal (plus 578 blacks and 47 whites. Nevertheless, by need with 1834 only 1,171 Cherokees (plus 293 blacks) had actually emigrated, according to official records).' (Russell, The Cherokees: A Population History, 1992, p. 50) The removals that lasted from 1831 to 1834 were carried out under inhumane and horrifying conditions, such as lack of food, blankets and wagons. Sporadic attacks from ambush by bandits were not prevented by the U.S. soldiers. It is estimated that nearly a quarter of the Choctaw died during the marches, while those who survived the phd thesis dreadful journey, after their arrival in the Indian Territory, died as a result of various diseases and starvation. Theoretically, the Indian Territory was regarded as a permanent homeland for many tribes. 'Originally, the promised region stretched from the state boundaries of business restructuring plan, Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa to the 100th meridian, about 300 miles at the widest point. Nonetheless, with increasing non-Indian settlement west of the phd thesis revisions Mississippi in need with resume, the mid- 1800s, the Indian Territory was reduced again and again.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) As of 1854, the north of the Indian Territory included the territories of Kansas and Nebraska that were later recognized states status. Phd Thesis? From 1866 onwards, tribes situated in those regions were resettled to the south, allegedly reserved for the Southeast tribes, also known as the 'Five Civilized Tribes.' In the 1880s, arrival of the Boomers followed and again Indian reservations became matter of just broke, interests of the Whites in pursuit of more Indian lands for settlement.
Most of the relocations of the Five Civilized Tribes were carried out on the grounds of the Indian Removal Act of phd thesis revisions, 1830. The political viewpoint of President Jackson on marketing warfare report Indian question was backed up by his own views that the 'red men' were not capable of integration into the society of the Whites, nor did they have the intelligence to coexist in the white society. Moreover, according to him, they had to accept Christianity; otherwise they are destined to eventual extinction. Further on, the government's policy was to be welcomed by phd thesis the Native Indians, as it will, at the expense of the government, carry out the relocation. Such policy would positively affect other Native Indians, to follow the pattern of the warfare book report 'five civilized tribes'. President Andrew Jackson' in his Message to Congress 'On Indian Removal' (1830) outlines the revisions relevance of the 2002 government's policy, as follows: 'The waves of population and civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and West by a fair exchange, and, at phd thesis the expense of the United States, to send them to land where their existence may be prolonged and perhaps made perpetual.' The map shows numerous routes that were taken by Native Indian tribes at the time of forcible removals from 1830 to 1840. The Choctaw were the first tribe forcibly removed from their homeland. Non-Indian settlers had territorial aspiration toward their lands. State governments just as the federal government kept side with whites over 2002 Indians. Ironical was their role in the Creek War, when the Choctaw had fought under Andrew Jackson, who would later become president of the United States and mastermind of the 'legitimate' removal of the Native Indians.
Despite the fact that the Choctaw were not represented by the majority, a few members of the Choctaw were talked into signing the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, in 1830. This Treaty led to ceding of all Choctaw lands in the state of Mississippi. Those who disapproved the Treaty remained and revisions, hid out in the Mississippi and Louisiana woods. However, the vast majority were made to move westward by U.S. Army.
However, the Choctaw who reached their new homelands, designated by the U.S. government, persisted and phd thesis, had undergone reorganization as a tribe and started a new life. They even adopted a republican form of government, modeled after that of the United States and many customs of the phd thesis revisions 'civilized' Whites, and need help with resume, that is how the Choctaw along with the Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole, gained a reputation as one of the 'Five Civilized Tribes' During the Creek removal of 1836 and following their arrival in the Indian Territory, out of 15,000 who were to move to the Southeast, about 3,500 died as a consequence of hunger, disease and ambushed bandit attacks. 'Pressures caused by non-Indian expansion did not cease, however. The General Allotment Act of 1887, designed to force the breakup of tribal landholdings for increased development, caused the eventual loss of much acreage. Phd Thesis? What was supposed to exist permanently for native peoples as the Indian Territory became the state of Oklahoma in 1907 (Oklahoma is ap macroeconomics 2002 a Muskogean word, coined by the Choctaw Allen Wright to mean 'red people,' and first applied to the western half of the Indian Territory in revisions, 1890.)' (Waldman, 2006, p. 71) 4.3. Georgia Gold Rush. The Native Indians inhabiting the area of the Appalachian Mountains were aware of the gold resources long before the arrival of the first Spanish expeditions in their lands. The gold was discovered in the Blue Ridge Mountains around 1733, and for almost 100 years the ap macroeconomics 2002 essay site remained unmined. Frank Logan, farmer and prospector, takes credit for discovering gold on Dukes Creek, a tributary of the Chattahoochee River in 1828.
America's first gold rush was on horizon. Many explorers told stories of Indians wearing gold. One such story was that of Diego Miruelo, who was supposedly given a small quantity of gold when trading some goods with Florida Indians. However, Hernando de Soto is phd thesis known for launching the ap macroeconomics first grand expedition in pursuit of gold in 1540. Thousands of prospectors in late 1829 rushed to North Georgia, also known as the Cherokee Nation, looking for gold . Phd Thesis Revisions? ' The sudden influx of miners into plan the Cherokee Nation was known even at the time as the Great Intrusion. One writer said in the Cherokee Phoenix, Our neighbors who regard no law and pay no respects to revisions the laws of humanity are now reaping a plentiful harvest. . . . We are an abused people. The gold was discovered in Georgia on October 27, 1828. Benjamin Parks, who lived in Hall County (now Lumpkin County), is known as the first discoverer. Among other first discoverers is ap macroeconomics essay Georgia prospector Frank Logan. Supposedly, Logan on his way back to revisions the North Carolina gold fields, discovered gold in 1828 on Dukes Creek. The story of Benjamin Parks is considered unsubstantiated because he initially claimed he found the need with resume gold in 1827 and leased the land to mine, but he was not the owner of that land until July, 1828.
The news of gold mines spread and more men were lured into making money, the easy way. Phd Thesis Revisions? 'Whispers of the gold in psychology research, Georgia spread slowly, but the trickle turned to a flood when the Georgia Journal ran a story on Gold. two mines in revisions, Habersham.' 4.4. Not Poor Just? Assimilation and Allotment. Controversial political views outlined a necessity for phd thesis revisions their removal. Some argued that the Indians could have remained, if assimilated; while others proposed their removal, as they had no capacity for assimilation into superior and technically advanced society of the whites. Either way, the choice was not to marketing warfare book report be made by the Indians.
Numerous arguments in favor and against removal legislation come down to revisions one distinct term ' assimilation. Much debate evolved around the process of business plan, assimilation. Whether Indians could assimilate or had no capacity of it is irrelevant, as they could not be accepted for who they are. They were deprived of right to live in accordance with their own culture and customs, in their traditional lands, using their native languages. Some 50 years after the Removal of Native Indians, more precisely on February 8th, 1887, Congress passed the General Allotment Act (or the Dawes Severalty Act). 'U.S. law providing for the distribution of Indian reservation land among individual tribesmen, with the aim of creating responsible farmers in phd thesis revisions, the white man's image. It was sponsored in several sessions of Congress by Sen.
Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts and finally was enacted in February 1887. Under its terms, the president determined the suitability of the recipients and issued the grants, usually by a formula of with, 160 acres to each head of household and 80 acres to each unmarried adult, with the revisions stipulation that no grantee could alienate his land for with 25 years.' It also enabled the Indians who received land, to become U.S. citizens, meaning they had to comply with the federal, state, and local laws. Although it was aimed at the welfare of the phd thesis revisions Indians, there were no enough votes in Congress to pass it. Amendments to the Act were made, in essay, terms of any remaining land, after the phd thesis revisions allotment to the Indians, would be offered for public sale and then passing the marketing Act followed. 'By 1889, 2 million acres had been bought from the Indians, usually at ridiculously low prices, and thrown open to non-Indian settlement. The Oklahoma Land Run took place that year, with settlers lining up at a starting point to phd thesis race for marketing warfare choice pieces. Those who cheated and entered the lands open for settlement were called 'sooners.' In 1890, Oklahoma Territory was formed from these lands.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) The leaders of Cherokee and Choctaw leaders rejected allotment and revisions, decided to plan resolve the matter at federal courts. In response, Congress passed the revisions Curtis Act of 1898, with aim to dissolve their tribal governments and courts. Furthermore, The Curtis Act was, in a way prolongation of land Allotment policy. The U.S. government's policies were structured around regaining Indian lands. In 1905, a proposal to the federal government was made by representatives of the Five Civilized Tribes for establishment of a separate Indian state, known as Sequoyah. 'Legislation was submitted to Congress but was not enacted. Oklahoma, all of which had once been Indian land, became a state in 1907.
During this period, in 1924, the federal government passed the Citizenship Act, conferring citizenship on all Native Americans. Two states'Arizona and New Mexico' delayed giving Indians voting rights until much later. In 1934, with the Indian Reorganization Act (or the Wheeler-Howard Act), the policies of Assimilation and Allotment ended.' (Waldman, 2006, p. 54) It was not until President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his commissioner of Indian affairs, John Collier appeared on the political stage that the Native Indians would initiate the process of rediscovering their lost culture. Those who imposed the assimilation policy had intended to diminish the need relevance of Indian heritage and reorganize their tribal features to fit into their own. However, the tribes that were encircled with the allotment process never repossessed the lands lost to whites.
The term reservation is applied to most of tribally held lands in other states. Remaining Indian lands in Oklahoma are referred to as Indian trust areas. 5. THE TRAIL OF TEARS, WATER AND LAND ROUTES. 'Various scholars have speculated that the camp conditions might have been responsible for perhaps one-third to one-half of all of the deaths associated with the Trail of Tears, though the records leave little chance for phd thesis revisions anything more than speculation. Scott divided the 2002 camps into three military districts, each with its own plan for removal to Indian Territory involving land and water routes.' (Sturgis, 2007, p. 59) The tribes were made to revisions take two main routes to reach Oklahoma. Each route went through the Ozarks; the of religion research water route, also called the southern route went through Arkansas and the land route, also known as northern route, went through the revisions Ozarks of southern Missouri. The Native American Indians were removed from the southeastern United States to west of the Mississippi. Marketing Warfare Report? The outrageous 800-mile trail, from Georgia to eastern Oklahoma, took place during 1838 and phd thesis revisions, 1839. The illustration presents both main routes, i.e., the land and water route. Illustration 2 - Routes of the Trail of warfare book, Tears from the National Park Service. The territorial aspirations of the Whites were fueled by the discovery of gold in phd thesis, Georgia in 1828, which was confirmed in 1830.
President Andrew Jackson's policy on the Indian Removal corresponds to that timeframe and revisions, that same year Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and from that moment on it was 'legitimate' to remove Native Indians from their ancestral lands to so called Indian Territory or reservations. The map illustrates ceded lands, routes of Indian removal and Indian reservations. President Jackson outlined in his Second Annual Message to Congress on December 6, 1830 that: 'The consequences of phd thesis revisions, a speedy removal will be important to the United States, to individual States, and to the Indians themselves'It puts an end to all possible danger of collision between the authorities of the General and State Governments on of religion research account of the Indians. It will place a dense and phd thesis revisions, civilized population in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters.' ' European settlements in the Southeast of the U.S: begun with explorer expeditions in XVI century. The Spanish established missions in Florida and Georgia, and in 1607, the English established Jamestown, Virginia. Later XVII century is marked by of religion research the English who took part in Indian slavery and deerskin trade in phd thesis revisions, South Carolina, and exploitation of the Mississippi River by 2002 essay the French.
Perhaps the most genocidal event was triggered by the passage of the revisions 1830 Indian Removal Act. Known as 'Indian Fighter', President Andrew Jackson authorized the use of revisions, force to implement it. It provided European settlers with vast regions of rich soil to establish farms on phd thesis revisions lands inhabited by the 'Five Civilized Tribes'. Namely, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole presented a role-model of successful assimilation into whites' society and psychology research paper, it was from 1830-1839, that systematical removals were enforced upon revisions them. Revisions? The routes they were forced to take, from their southeastern lands to present-day Oklahoma, became symbolically known as the revisions 'Trail of ap macroeconomics 2002, Tears'.
According to data from 1980, 60,000 Cherokee, 24,000 Choctaw, 15,500 Creek, 6,000 Chickasaw, and 5,000 Seminole live in Oklahoma. Some argue that genocide is difficult to identify while others have no doubt about its classification. Genocide in broader context applies to the acts 'committed with intent to destroy, in revisions, whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. ' The Trail of Tears cannot be categorized only in terms of essay, tragedy of the 'Five Civilized Tribes'. Modern society has name for it and phd thesis revisions, this event is to be named for what it is. The intention to eradicate Native Indians may be questionable; however the Indian Removal Act clearly outlined that Indians may become extinct or their lands abandoned: The fact that Indian Removal Act was an instrument in the hands of U.S: government to restructuring plan relocate five Native Indian Nations without their consent, by force, constitutes crime. 'The crime of genocide has two elements: intent and action 'it must be inferred from a systematic pattern of coordinated acts.
Intent is revisions different from a motive. Whatever may be the motive for the crime (land expropriation, national security, territorial integrity, etc.,) if the perpetrators commit acts intended to destroy a group, even part of a group, it is genocide.' Bowes, John P. (2009). The Trail of Tears: Removal in the South (Landmark Events in Native American History). New York: Infobase Publishing. Marsico, K. (2010).
Perspectives on the Trail of Tears: The Tragedy of American Indians. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. McNickle, D. (1973). Indian Survivals and Renewals. New York: Oxford University Press. Rasmussen, Kent R., the Editors of Salem Press. (1995). American Indian Tribes. Pasadena: Salem Press, Inc. Sturgis, Amy H. (2007).
The Trail of Tears and Indian Removal, Westport: Greenwood Press. Thornton, R. (1990). American Indian Holocaust and not poor broke essay, Survival: A Population History since 1492, (The Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 186). University of phd thesis, Oklahoma Press. Thornton, R. (1992).
The Cherokees: A Population History, University of Nebraska Press. Waldman, C. (2006). Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, 3rd Ed., New York: Checkmark Books. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Language essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on research paper hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of phd thesis, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Language work in your email box, in revisions, as little as 3 hours. This English Language essay was submitted to us by phd thesis revisions a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
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