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Powder for solution for injection. BOTOX is indicated for: #8226; treatment of focal spasticity , including: dynamic equinus foot deformity due to spasticity in ambulant paediatric cerebral palsy patients, two years of age or older. History Introduction? wrist and hand disability due to upper limb spasticity associated with stroke in adults. ankle disability due to lower limb spasticity associated with stroke in mla style paper, adults. Of Technology? #8226; symptomatic relief of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and idiopathic cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) #8226; prophylaxis of headaches in research, adults with chronic migraine (headaches on english for fifth at least 15 days per month of which at least 8 days are with migraine) #8226; management of bladder dysfunctions in adult patients who are not adequately managed with anticholinergics. overactive bladder with symptoms of urinary incontinence, urgency and frequency. neurogenic detrusor overactivity with urinary incontinence due to mla style subcervical spinal cord injury (traumatic or non-traumatic), or multiple sclerosis. Skin and skin appendage disorder: #8226; management of severe hyperhidrosis of the axillae , which does not respond to american history topical treatment with antiperspirants or antihidrotics. #8226; temporary improvement in the appearance of the following facial lines, when the paper severity of these lines has an important psychological impact in adult patients: moderate to severe vertical lines between the eyebrows seen at maximum frown (glabellar lines) moderate to severe lateral canthal lines (crow's feet lines) seen at maximum smile. moderate to severe crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile and intelligent essay, glabellar lines seen at maximum frown when treated simultaneously. Botulinum toxin units are not interchangeable from mla style, one product to another . Doses recommended in machinery, Allergan Units are different from other botulinum toxin preparations. Dosages for elderly patients are the same as for younger adults. Initial dosing should begin at mla style the lowest recommended dose for the specific indication. Intelligent Turing? Elderly patients with significant medical history and paper, concomitant medications should be treated with caution. There is limited data in what to write in a history essay introduction, patients older than 65 years managed with BOTOX for research mla style paper, urinary incontinence with neurogenic detrusor overactivity and for facial lines (see section 5.1).
The safety and essay, efficacy of BOTOX in the treatment of research mla style paper, individual indications have not been established in children and adolescents under the ages listed in the table below. Institute Essay? No data are available. #8226; Focal spasticity associated with paediatric cerebral palsy. Mla Style Paper? #8226; Upper and lower limb spasticity associated with stroke. #8226; Blepharospasm/Hemifacial spasm/ Idiopathic Cervical dystonia. #8226; Chronic migraine (CM) #8226; Overactive Bladder (OAB) and admissions essay, Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity (NDO) #8226; Primary hyperhidrosis of the axillae. (limited experience in adolescents between 12 and 17 years, see sections 4.8 and 5.1) #8226; Glabellar lines seen at maximum frown and/or crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile. Method of paper, Administration. Turing? BOTOX should only be administered by physicians with appropriate qualifications and expertise in research mla style paper, the treatment and essay, the use of the required equipment. This product is for single use only and any unused solution should be discarded.
The most appropriate vial size should be selected for the indication. An injection volume of approximately 0.1 ml is recommended. A decrease or increase in the BOTOX dose is possible by administering a smaller or larger injection volume. The smaller the injection volume the less discomfort and less spread of toxin in the injected muscle occurs. Mla Style? This is about bribery, of benefit in reducing effects on nearby muscles when small muscle groups are being injected.
For instructions on reconstitution of the powder for solution for injection, handling and disposal of vials please refer to section 6.6. Mla Style? Refer to essay specific guidance for research mla style paper, each indication described below. Generally valid optimum dose levels and number of injection sites per muscle have not been established for all indications. In these cases, individual treatment regimens should therefore be drawn up by the physician. Optimum dose levels should be determined by titration but the recommended maximum dose should not be exceeded. Focal spasticity associated with paediatric cerebral palsy. Sterile 23-26 gauge/0.60-0.45 mm needle. American? To be administered as a divided dose through single injections into the medial and lateral heads of the affected gastrocnemius muscle. Hemiplegia: the initial recommended total dose is 4 Units/kg body weight in the affected limb.
Diplegia: the initial recommended total dose is 6 Units/kg body weight divided between the affected limbs. 200 Units in total. Mla Style? Clinical improvement generally occurs within the first two weeks after injection. Repeat doses should be administered when the clinical effect of institute of technology admissions, a previous injection diminishes but not more frequently than every three months. It may be possible to paper adapt the dosage regimen to obtain an interval of at least six months between treatment sessions. Focal upper limb spasticity associated with stroke. Sterile 25, 27 or 30 gauge needle. Needle length should be determined based on muscle location and depth.
Localisation of the involved muscles with techniques such as electromyographic guidance, nerve stimulation, or ultrasound is recommended. Multiple injection sites may allow BOTOX to have more uniform contact with the english essay innervation areas of the muscle and research mla style paper, are especially useful in to write essay, larger muscles. The exact dosage and paper, number of in a history, injection sites may be tailored to mla style the individual based on the size, number and location of muscles involved, the american introduction essay severity of research paper, spasticity, the presence of american history, local muscle weakness, and the patient response to previous treatment. The following doses are recommended: Flexor digitorum profundus. 15 - 50 Units; 1-2 sites. Paper? Flexor digitorum sublimis.
15 - 50 Units; 1-2 sites. Flexor carpi radialis. 15 - 60 Units; 1-2 sites. Flexor carpi ulnaris. 10 - 50 Units; 1-2 sites. 20 Units; 1-2 sites. Flexor Pollicis Longus. 20 Units; 1-2 sites.
Between 200 and 240 Units divided among selected muscles. If it is deemed appropriate by introduction the treating physician, the research mla style patient should be considered for the word essays, re-injection when the clinical effect of the previous injection has diminished. Research? Re-injections should occur no sooner than 12 weeks after the previous injection. The degree and essay, pattern of muscle spasticity at the time of re-injection may necessitate alterations in mla style paper, the dose of BOTOX and muscles to be injected. The lowest effective dose should be used. Focal lower limb spasticity associated with stroke.
Sterile 25, 27 or 30 gauge needle. Needle length should be determined based on muscle location and depth. Localisation of the involved muscles with techniques such as electromyographic guidance, nerve stimulation, or ultrasound is recommended. Multiple injection sites may allow BOTOX to have more uniform contact with the american essay innervation areas of the muscle and research mla style paper, are especially useful in larger muscles. The following diagrams indicate the injection sites for adult lower limb spasticity: The recommended dose for for fifth, treating adult lower limb spasticity involving the ankle is 300 Units divided among 3 muscles. Total Dosage; Number of Sites. 75 Units; 3 sites. 75 Units; 3 sites.
75 Units; 3 sites. 75 Units; 3 sites. If it is deemed appropriate by the treating physician, the patient should be considered for re-injection when the clinical effect of the mla style paper previous injection has diminished, but generally no sooner than 12 weeks after the previous injection. Sterile, 27-30 gauge/0.40-0.30 mm needle. Electromyographic guidance is turing essay, not necessary. The initial recommended dose is 1.25-2.5 Units (0.05-0.1 ml volume at each site) injected into the medial and lateral orbicularis oculi of the upper lid and the lateral orbicularis oculi of the lower lid. Additional sites in mla style paper, the brow area, the lateral orbicularis and in the upper facial area may also be injected if spasms here interfere with vision. The following diagrams indicate the possible injection sites: The initial dose should not exceed 25 Units per institute admissions eye. In the management of blepharospasm total dosing should not exceed 100 Units in total every 12 weeks. Avoiding injection near levator palpebrae superioris may reduce the complication of research mla style paper, ptosis. Avoiding medial lower lid injections, and thereby reducing diffusion into the inferior oblique, may reduce the complication of essay, diplopia.
In general, the initial effect of the injections is seen within three days and research paper, reaches a peak at one to two weeks post-treatment. Each treatment lasts approximately three months, following which the procedure can be repeated indefinitely. Normally no additional benefit is conferred by treating more frequently than every three months. At repeat treatment sessions, the dose may be increased up to two-fold if the response from the initial treatment is considered insufficient - usually defined as an effect that does not last longer than two months. However, there appears to be little benefit obtainable from what to write in a, injecting more than 5 Units per site. Patients with hemifacial spasm or VII th nerve disorders should be treated as for unilateral blepharospasm, with other affected facial muscles being injected as needed. Electromyographic control may be necessary to identify affected small circumoral muscles. A 25, 27 or 30 gauge/0.50-0.30 mm needle may be used for superficial muscles, and a 22 gauge needle may be used for deeper musculature. Mla Style Paper? The treatment of cervical dystonia typically may include injection of going limit on college essays, BOTOX into the sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, scalene, splenius capitis, semispinalis, longissimus and/or the trapezius muscle(s). This list is not exhaustive as any of the muscles responsible for controlling head position may be involved and therefore require treatment. The muscle mass and the degree of hypertrophy are factors to be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate dose.
Muscle activation patterns can change spontaneously in cervical dystonia without a change in the clinical presentation of dystonia. In case of any difficulty in isolating the research paper individual muscles, injections should be made under electromyographic assistance. Multiple injection sites allow BOTOX to have more uniform contact with the innervation areas of the dystonic muscle and are especially useful in larger muscles. The optimal number of injection sites is dependent upon the size of the muscle to be chemically denervated. Of Technology Admissions? Dosing must be tailored to the individual patient based on the patient's head and neck position, location of pain, muscle hypertrophy, patient's body weight, and patient response. Initial dosing in a naive patient should begin at the lowest effective dose. To minimise the incidence of dysphagia, the sternomastoid should not be injected bilaterally. The following doses are recommended: Head rotated toward side of shoulder elevation. 50 - 100 Units; at least 2 sites. 50 Units; 1 - 2 sites. 25 - 50 Units; 1 - 2 sites.
25 - 75 Units; 1 - 3 sites. 25 - 100 Units; 1 - 8 sites. Head rotation only. Research? 25 - 100 Units; at least 2 sites if 25 Units given. Head tilted toward side of shoulder elevation. 25 - 100 Units at posterior border; at least 2 sites if 25 Units given. American History Essay? 25 - 100 Units; at least 2 sites. 25 - 75 Units; at least 2 sites. 25 - 100 Units; 1 - 8 sites. Bilateral posterior cervical muscle spasm with elevation of the face.
Splenius capitis and cervicis. 50 - 200 Units; 2 - 8 sites, treat bilaterally. (This is the total dose and not the dose for each side of the paper neck) No more than 50 Units should be given at any one injection site. No more than 100 Units should be given to the sternomastoid. No more than 200 Units in total should be injected for the first course of therapy, with adjustments made in subsequent courses dependent on the initial response, up to a maximum total dose of 300 Units. Treatment intervals of less than 10 weeks are not recommended. Sterile 30 gauge, 0.5 inch needle. A 1 inch needle may be needed in the neck region for patients with extremely thick neck muscles. Injections should be divided across 7 specific head/neck muscle areas as specified in the diagrams below. With the exception of the procerus muscle, which should be injected at 1 site (midline), all muscles should be injected bilaterally with half the number of injection sites administered to the left, and half to intelligent the right side of the head and neck. Mla Style Paper? The following diagrams indicate the injection sites: If there is a predominant pain location(s), additional injections to one or both sides may be administered in up to intelligent turing 3 specific muscle groups (occipitalis, temporalis and trapezius), up to the maximum dose per paper muscle as indicated in the table below.
The following diagrams indicate recommended muscle groups for optional additional injections: 155 Units to 195 Units administered intramuscularly as 0.1 ml (5 Units) injections to 31 and what to write, up to 39 sites. Total Dosage (number of sites a ) 10 Units (2 sites) 20 Units (4 sites) 40 Units (8 sites) up to research mla style paper 50 Units (up to 10 sites) 30 Units (6 sites) up to 40 Units (up to 8 sites) Cervical Paraspinal Muscle Group b. Essay Bribery? 20 Units (4 sites) 30 Units (6 sites) up to research mla style 50 Units (up to 10 sites) 155 Units to 195 Units. American History Essay? a 1 IM injection site = 0.1 ml = 5 Units BOTOX. b Dose distributed bilaterally. The recommended re-treatment schedule is every 12 weeks. The injection needle should be filled (primed) with approximately 1 ml of the reconstituted BOTOX solution prior to the start of the injections (depending on the needle length) to remove any air.
The reconstituted solution of BOTOX (100 Units/10 ml) is injected via a flexible or rigid cystoscope, avoiding the research mla style trigone and to write essay, base. The bladder should be instilled with enough saline to achieve adequate visualisation for the injections and avoid backflow of the mla style product, but over-distension should be avoided. The needle should be inserted approximately 2 mm into the detrusor, and 20 injections of history essay, 0.5 ml each (total volume 10 ml) should be spaced approximately 1 cm apart (see figure below). For the final injection, approximately 1 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) should be injected so the mla style full dose is delivered. The recommended dose is 100 Units of BOTOX, as 0.5 ml (5 Units) injections across 20 sites in the detrusor muscle. For the going the word limit patient preparation and monitoring, see section 4.4. After the injections are given, the saline used for bladder wall visualisation should not be drained so that the patients can demonstrate their ability to void prior to leaving the clinic. The patient should be observed for at least 30 minutes post-injection and until a spontaneous void has occurred. Patients should be considered for reinjection when the clinical effect of the previous injection has diminished but no sooner than 3 months from the prior bladder injection. Urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
The injection needle should be filled (primed) with approximately 1 ml of the research mla style reconstituted BOTOX solution prior to the start of the injections (depending on in a the needle length) to remove any air. Mla Style Paper? The reconstituted solution of BOTOX (200 Units/30 ml) is injected via a flexible or rigid cystoscope, avoiding the trigone and base. The bladder should be instilled with enough saline to achieve adequate visualisation for the injections and avoid backflow of the going over limit on college product, but over-distension should be avoided. The needle should be inserted approximately 2 mm into the detrusor, and 30 injections of 1 ml each (total volume 30 ml) should be spaced approximately 1 cm apart (see figure above). For the final injection, approximately 1 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for research, injection) should be injected so the full dose is delivered. After the machinery turing injections are given, the saline used for paper, bladder wall visualisation should be drained.
The recommended dose is 200 Units of BOTOX, as 1 ml ( 6.7 Units) injections across 30 sites in the detrusor muscle. For the essay topics patient preparation and monitoring, see section 4.4. Patients should be considered for reinjection when the clinical effect of the previous injection has diminished, but no sooner than 3 months from the prior bladder injection. Limited data are available beyond 2 treatments. No urodynamic data beyond 2 treatments and no histopathological data after repeated treatment are currently available. Research Mla Style? Patients should not receive multiple treatments in the event of limited symptomatic improvement.
SKIN AND SKIN APPENDAGE DISORDERS: Primary hyperhidrosis of the axillae. Of Technology? Sterile 30 gauge needle. The hyperhidrotic area to be injected may be defined by using standard staining techniques, e.g. Minor?s iodine-starch test. 50 Units of BOTOX is injected intradermally to each axilla, evenly distributed in multiple sites approximately 1-2 cm apart. The recommended injection volume for intradermal injection is 0.1-0.2 ml.
Doses other than 50 Units per axilla cannot be recommended. Clinical improvement generally occurs within the first week after injection and mla style, persists for 4-7 months. Repeat injection of BOTOX can be administered when the clinical effect of a previous injection diminishes and the treating physician deems it necessary. Injections should not be repeated more frequently than every 16 weeks. Glabellar lines seen at maximum frown. Sterile 30 gauge needle. Before injection, the thumb or index finger is to be placed firmly below the orbital rim in order to prevent extravasation below the essay bribery and corruption orbital rim.
The needle should be oriented superiorly and medially during the injection. Research Mla Style Paper? In addition, injections near the levator palpebrae superioris muscle must be avoided, particularly in patients with larger brow-depressor complexes (depressor supercilii). Injections in the corrugator muscle must be done in the central part of that muscle, a distance of at least 1 cm above the arch of the eyebrows (see figure). Care should be taken to ensure that BOTOX is not injected into a blood vessel when it is injected in essay, the glabellar lines seen at maximum frown, see section 4.4. A volume of 0.1 ml (4 Units) is research mla style, administered in each of the in a history essay 5 injection sites (see Figure): 2 injections in each corrugator muscle and 1 injection in the procerus muscle for a total dose of research paper, 20 Units. In order to essay and corruption reduce the paper risk of eyelid ptosis, the maximum dose of 4 Units for each injection site as well as the number of english essay graders, injection sites should not be exceeded. Treatment intervals should not be more frequent than every three months.
In the event of mla style paper, treatment failure or diminished effect following repeat injections, alternative treatment methods should be employed. In case of insufficient dose a second treatment session should be initiated by adjusting the intelligent machinery essay total dose up to 40 or 50 Units, taking into account the mla style paper analysis of the previous treatment failure (see information in All indications). The efficacy and safety of for fifth graders, repeat injections of BOTOX for the treatment of glabellar lines beyond 12 months has not been evaluated. Research Mla Style Paper? Crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile. Sterile 30 gauge needle. Injections should be given with the needle tip bevel up and oriented away from the eye. The first injection (A) should be made approximately 1.5 to 2.0 cm temporal to the lateral canthus and going over, just temporal to the orbital rim. If the lines in mla style paper, the crow's feet region are above and below the lateral canthus, inject as shown in Figure 1. Alternatively, if the lines in the crow's feet region are primarily below the lateral canthus, inject as shown in Figure 2. In order to reduce the risk of in a essay, eyelid ptosis, injections should be made temporal to the orbital rim, thereby maintaining a safe distance from the muscle controlling eyelid elevation. Research? Care should be taken to ensure that BOTOX is not injected into a blood vessel when it is fashion institute admissions essay, injected in the crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile (see section 4.4). Research? A volume of 0.1 ml (4 Units) is administered in english essay graders, each of the 3 injection sites per side (total of 6 injection sites) in the lateral orbicularis oculi muscle, for a total dose of 24 Units in a total volume of 0.6 ml (12 Units per side). For simultaneous treatment with glabellar lines seen at maximum frown, the dose is 24 Units for crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile and research, 20 Units for glabellar lines (see Administration guidance for glabellar lines) for a total dose of what to write in a history essay, 44 Units in a total volume of 1.1 ml.
In order to reduce the risk of eyelid ptosis, the maximum dose of 4 Units for mla style paper, each injection site as well as the number of injection sites should not be exceeded. Treatment intervals should not be more frequent than every 3 months. The efficacy and safety of repeat injections of BOTOX for the treatment of crow's feet lines beyond 12 months has not been evaluated. In A History Essay Introduction? In case of treatment failure after the first treatment session, i.e. absence, at one month after injection, of significant clinical improvement from baseline, the following actions should be taken: - Clinical verification, which may include electromyographic examination in research paper, a specialist setting, of the action of the toxin on the injected muscle(s); - Analysis of the causes of failure, e.g. bad selection of muscles to be injected, insufficient dose, poor injection technique, appearance of fixed contracture, antagonist muscles too weak, formation of toxin-neutralising antibodies; - Re-evaluation of the appropriateness of fashion of technology admissions, treatment with botulinum toxin type A; - In the absence of any undesirable effects secondary to the first treatment session, instigate a second treatment session as following: i) adjust the mla style paper dose, taking into to write in a history essay account the analysis of the earlier treatment failure; ii) use EMG; and iii) maintain a three-month interval between the two treatment sessions. In the research paper event of treatment failure or diminished effect following repeat injections alternative treatment methods should be employed. The Word Essays? - known hypersensitivity to botulinum toxin type A or to mla style any of the excipients listed in section 6.1; - presence of infection at the proposed injection site(s). For the going over the word on college essays management of bladder disorders: - urinary tract infection at mla style the time of treatment; - acute urinary retention at the time of treatment, in patients who are not routinely catheterising; - patients who are not willing and/or able to initiate catheterisation post-treatment if required; - presence of bladder calculi. The recommended dosages and frequencies of administration of BOTOX should not be exceeded due to the potential for overdose, exaggerated muscle weakness, distant spread of toxin and the formation of neutralising antibodies. Initial dosing in treatment naive patients should begin with the lowest recommended dose for intelligent turing, the specific indication. Prescribers and research mla style paper, patients should be aware that side effects can occur despite previous injections being well tolerated. Caution should therefore be exercised on essay graders the occasion of each administration.
Side effects related to research spread of toxin distant from the to write essay introduction site of administration have been reported (see section 4.8), sometimes resulting in death, which in some cases was associated with dysphagia, pneumonia and/or significant debility. The symptoms are consistent with the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and have been reported hours to paper weeks after injection. The risk of symptoms is probably greatest in patients who have underlying conditions and comorbidities that would predispose them to these symptoms, including children and machinery essay, adults treated for spasticity, and are treated with high doses. Patients treated with therapeutic doses may also experience exaggerated muscle weakness. Paper? Elderly and fashion institute of technology, debilitated patients should be treated with caution. Generally, clinical studies of research paper, BOTOX did not identify differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients except for facial lines (see section 5.1). Dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range. Consideration should be given to the risk-benefit implications for going the word limit, the individual patient before embarking on treatment with BOTOX.
Dysphagia has also been reported following injection to sites other than the cervical musculature (see section 4.4 'Cervical Dystonia'). Mla Style Paper? BOTOX should only be used with extreme caution and under close supervision in patients with subclinical or clinical evidence of defective neuromuscular transmission e.g. myasthenia gravis or Lambert-Eaton Syndrome in patients with peripheral motor neuropathic diseases (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuropathy) and in patients with underlying neurological disorders. Of Technology Essay? Such patients may have an research mla style paper increased sensitivity to agents such as BOTOX, even at therapeutic doses, which may result in excessive muscle weakness and an increased risk of and corruption, clinically significant systemic effects including severe dysphagia and respiratory compromise. The botulinum toxin product should be used under specialist supervision in these patients and should only research mla style paper be used if the benefit of treatment is considered to outweigh the risk. Patients with a history of dysphagia and over limit, aspiration should be treated with extreme caution. Patients or caregivers should be advised to research paper seek immediate medical care if swallowing, speech or respiratory disorders arise. As with any treatment with the potential to allow previously-sedentary patients to resume activities, the sedentary patient should be cautioned to resume activity gradually. The relevant anatomy, and any alterations to the anatomy due to prior surgical procedures, must be understood prior to american history introduction administering BOTOX and injection into vulnerable anatomic structures must be avoided.
Pneumothorax associated with injection procedure has been reported following the administration of BOTOX near the thorax. Research? Caution is bribery, warranted when injecting in proximity to the lung (particularly the apices) or other vulnerable anatomic structures. Serious adverse events including fatal outcomes have been reported in patients who had received off-label injections of BOTOX directly into salivary glands, the paper oro-lingual-pharyngeal region, oesophagus and stomach. Some patients had pre-existing dysphagia or significant debility. Serious and/or immediate hypersensitivity reactions have been rarely reported including anaphylaxis, serum sickness, urticaria, soft tissue oedema, and dyspnoea. Some of these reactions have been reported following the use of what essay introduction, BOTOX either alone or in conjunction with other products associated with similar reactions. If such a reaction occurs further injection of BOTOX should be discontinued and appropriate medical therapy, such as epinephrine, immediately instituted. One case of paper, anaphylaxis has been reported in which the patient died after being injected with BOTOX inappropriately diluted with 5 ml of 1% lidocaine. As with any injection, procedure-related injury could occur. An injection could result in localised infection, pain, inflammation, paraesthesia, hypoaesthesia, tenderness, swelling, erythema, and/or bleeding/bruising.
Needle-related pain and/or anxiety may result in vasovagal responses, e.g. syncope, hypotension, etc. Machinery Turing? Caution should be used when BOTOX is research mla style paper, used in the presence of inflammation at the proposed injection site(s) or when excessive weakness or atrophy is present in essay bribery and corruption, the target muscle. Caution should also be exercised when BOTOX is used for treatment of patients with peripheral motor neuropathic diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuropathy). There have been reports of adverse events following administration of BOTOX involving the cardiovascular system, including arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, some with fatal outcomes. Research? Some of these patients had risk factors including pre-existing cardiovascular disease. New onset or recurrent seizures have been reported, typically in patients who are predisposed to experiencing these events.
The exact relationship of these events to botulinum toxin injection has not been established. The reports in children were predominantly from cerebral palsy patients treated for spasticity. Formation of neutralising antibodies to botulinum toxin type A may reduce the effectiveness of BOTOX treatment by inactivating the biological activity of the toxin. Results from english essay graders, some studies suggest that BOTOX injections at more frequent intervals or at higher doses may lead to greater incidence of antibody formation. When appropriate, the potential for antibody formation may be minimised by injecting with the lowest effective dose given at the longest clinically indicated intervals between injections. Research Mla Style Paper? Clinical fluctuations during the repeated use of BOTOX (as with all botulinum toxins) may be a result of different vial reconstitution procedures, injection intervals, muscles injected and essay topics for fifth, slightly differing potency values given by the biological test method used.
The safety and efficacy of BOTOX in indications other than those described for research paper, the paediatric population in section 4.1 has not been established. Post-marketing reports of possible distant spread of toxin have been very rarely reported in paediatric patients with comorbidities, predominantly with cerebral palsy. In general the dose used in these cases was in excess of that recommended (see section 4.8). There have been rare spontaneous reports of death sometimes associated with aspiration pneumonia in intelligent turing essay, children with severe cerebral palsy after treatment with botulinum toxin, including following off-label use (e.g. neck area). Extreme caution should be exercised when treating paediatric patients who have significant neurologic debility, dysphagia, or have a recent history of aspiration pneumonia or lung disease. Treatment in paper, patients with poor underlying health status should be administered only if the introduction essay potential benefit to the individual patient is considered to outweigh the risks. Focal spasticity associated with paediatric cerebral palsy and spasticity of the ankle, hand and wrist in adult post-stroke patients. Research Mla Style Paper? BOTOX is a treatment of focal spasticity that has only been studied in topics for fifth, association with usual standard of research, care regimens, and is not intended as a replacement for these treatment modalities. BOTOX is not likely to be effective in improving range of motion at a joint affected by intelligent machinery turing essay a fixed contracture.
BOTOX should only be used for the treatment of mla style, focal spasticity in adult post-stroke patients if muscle tone reduction is essay about bribery, expected to result in improved function (e.g. improvements in research mla style paper, gait), or improved symptoms (e.g. reduction in muscle spasms or pain), and/or to facilitate care. Caution should be exercised when treating adult patients with post - stroke spasticity who may be at increased risk of fall. In clinical studies where patients were treated for lower limb spasticity (some of whom also received concurrent treatment for upper limb spasticity), the incidence of fall was 7.2% and 4.9% of patients in the BOTOX and placebo groups, respectively. There have been post-marketing reports of death (sometimes associated with aspiration pneumonia) and of possible distant spread of toxin in children with co-morbidities, predominantly cerebral palsy following treatment with botulinum toxin. See warnings under section 4.4, 'Paediatric use'. What Essay? Reduced blinking following botulinum toxin injection into the orbicularis muscle can lead to corneal exposure, persistent epithelial defect, and corneal ulceration, especially in research mla style, patients with VII nerve disorders. Careful testing of about bribery, corneal sensation in eyes previously operated upon, avoidance of paper, injection into the lower lid area to avoid ectropion, and vigorous treatment of any epithelial defect should be employed. This may require protective drops, ointment, therapeutic soft contact lenses, or closure of the eye by patching or other means.
Ecchymosis occurs easily in the soft eyelid tissues. This can be minimised by applying gentle pressure at the injection site immediately after injection. Because of the anticholinergic activity of botulinum toxin, caution should be exercised when treating patients at risk for angle closure glaucoma, including patients with anatomically narrow angles. Patients with cervical dystonia should be informed of the possibility of fashion, experiencing dysphagia which may be very mild, but could be severe. Dysphagia may persist for two to mla style three weeks after injection, but has been reported to last up to five months post-injection. Consequent to the dysphagia there is the potential for aspiration, dyspnoea and occasionally the need for tube feeding. In rare cases dysphagia followed by aspiration pneumonia and death has been reported. Limiting the dose injected into the sternocleidomastoid muscle to less than 100 Units may decrease the about bribery and corruption occurrence of dysphagia. Patients with smaller neck muscle mass, or patients who receive bilateral injections into the sternocleidomastoid muscle, have been reported to be at greater risk of dysphagia. Dysphagia is research, attributable to intelligent the spread of the toxin to the oesophageal musculature. Injections into the levator scapulae may be associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory infection and dysphagia.
Dysphagia may contribute to decreased food and water intake resulting in weight loss and dehydration. Patients with subclinical dysphagia may be at increased risk of experiencing more severe dysphagia following a BOTOX injection. No efficacy has been shown for BOTOX in the prophylaxis of headaches in patients with episodic migraine (headaches on 15 days per month). Patient preparation and research mla style, monitoring. Prophylactic antibiotics should be administered to patients with sterile urine or asymptomatic bacteriuria in history introduction essay, accordance with local standard practice. The decision to discontinue anti-platelet therapy should be subject to research mla style local guidance and benefit/risk consideration for the individual patient. Patients on anti-coagulant therapy need to be managed appropriately to decrease the risk of bleeding. Appropriate medical caution should be exercised when performing the cystoscopy. The patient should be observed for at institute of technology admissions least 30 minutes post-injection. In patients who are not regularly practicing catheterisation, post-void residual urine volume should be assessed within 2 weeks post-treatment and periodically as medically appropriate. Mla Style? Patients should be instructed to contact their physician if they experience difficulties in voiding as catheterisation may be required.
Prior to american history introduction essay injection an intravesical instillation of diluted local anaesthetic, with or without sedation, may be used, per local site practice. If a local anaesthetic instillation is performed, the bladder should be drained and rinsed with sterile saline before the next steps of the injection procedure. Urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity. BOTOX injection can be performed under general or local anaesthesia with or without sedation. If a local anaesthetic intravesical instillation is performed, the bladder should be drained and rinsed with sterile saline before the next steps of the research mla style paper injection procedure. Autonomic dysreflexia associated with the procedure can occur and greater vigilance is required in patients known to be at risk. SKIN AND SKIN APPENDAGE DISORDER.
Primary hyperhidrosis of the axillae. Medical history and physical examination, along with specific additional investigations as required, should be performed to exclude potential causes of institute, secondary hyperhidrosis (e.g. Research Mla Style Paper? hyperthyroidism, phaeochromocytoma). This will avoid symptomatic treatment of hyperhidrosis without the intelligent machinery diagnosis and/or treatment of underlying disease. Glabellar lines seen at maximum frown and/or crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile. It is mandatory that BOTOX is used for one single patient treatment only during a single session.
The excess of unused product must be disposed of as detailed in section 6.6. Particular precautions should be taken for product preparation and administration as well as for research paper, the inactivation and disposal of the remaining unused solution (see section 6.6). The use of in a essay introduction, BOTOX is mla style, not recommended in individuals under 18 years. There is limited phase 3 clinical data with BOTOX in patients older than 65 years. Care should be taken to ensure that BOTOX is not injected into a blood vessel when it is injected in the glabellar seen at maximum frown or in the crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile, see section 4.2. There is a risk of eyelid ptosis following treatment, refer to Section 4.2 for administration instructions on essays how to research mla style minimise this risk. Theoretically, the effect of botulinum toxin may be potentiated by aminoglycoside antibiotics or spectinomycin, or other medicinal products that interfere with neuromuscular transmission (e.g. neuromuscular blocking agents). The effect of administering different botulinum neurotoxin serotypes at the same time or within several months of each other is unknown. Excessive neuromuscular weakness may be exacerbated by administration of another botulinum toxin prior to the resolution of the intelligent machinery turing effects of a previously administered botulinum toxin. No interaction studies have been performed.
No interactions of clinical significance have been reported. There are no data available on the concomitant use of anticholinergics with BOTOX injections in the management of overactive bladder. There are no adequate data from the use of botulinum toxin type A in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see Section 5.3). Paper? The potential risk for what to write in a history, humans is unknown. BOTOX is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using contraception. Research Mla Style Paper? There is no information on whether BOTOX is excreted in human milk.
The use of BOTOX during breast-feeding cannot be recommended. There are no adequate data on the effects on fertility from the use of botulinum toxin type A in women of childbearing potential. Studies in male and female rats have shown fertility reductions (see section 5.3). No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, BOTOX may cause asthenia, muscle weakness, somnolence, dizziness and going over the word limit, visual disturbance, which could affect driving and the operation of machinery. In controlled clinical trials adverse events considered by research mla style paper the investigators to be related to BOTOX were reported in 35% of the patients with blepharospasm, 28% with cervical dystonia, 17% with paediatric cerebral palsy, 11% with primary hyperhidrosis of the axillae, 16% with focal spasticity of the upper limb associated with stroke, 15% with focal spasticity of the lower limb associated with stroke, 26% with overactive bladder, and 32% with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
In clinical trials for intelligent machinery turing, chronic migraine, the incidence was 26% with the first treatment and declined to research paper 11% with a second treatment. In controlled clinical trials for glabellar lines seen at maximum frown, adverse events considered by the investigators to be related to BOTOX were reported in 23% (placebo 19%) of machinery, patients. In treatment cycle 1 of the pivotal controlled clinical trials for crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile, such events were reported in 8% (24 Units for crow's feet lines alone) and 6% (44 Units: 24 Units for mla style, crow's feet lines administered simultaneously with 20 Units for glabellar lines) of patients compared to 5% for about bribery and corruption, placebo. Adverse reactions may be related to treatment, injection technique or both. In general, adverse reactions occur within the mla style first few days following injection and, while generally transient, may have a duration of several months or, in rare cases, longer. Local muscle weakness represents the expected pharmacological action of botulinum toxin in muscle tissue. However, weakness of adjacent muscles and/or muscles remote from the site of injection has been reported. As is expected for to write in a essay introduction, any injection procedure, localised pain, inflammation, paraesthesia, hypoaesthesia, tenderness, swelling/oedema, erythema, localised infection, bleeding and/or bruising have been associated with the injection. Needle-related pain and/or anxiety have resulted in vasovagal responses, including transient symptomatic hypotension and syncope.
Fever and flu syndrome have also been reported after injections of botulinum toxin. b) Adverse reactions - frequency by indication. The frequency of adverse reactions reported in the clinical trials is defined as follows: Very Common (#8805; 1/10); Common (#8805;1/100 to 1/10); Uncommon (#8805;1/1,000 to 1/100); Rare (#8805;1/10,000 to 1/1,000); Very Rare (1/10,000). Focal spasticity associated with paediatric cerebral palsy. Research Mla Style Paper? System Organ Class. Infections and infestations. History Introduction? Viral infection, ear infection.
Nervous system disorders. Paper? Somnolence, gait disturbance, paraesthesia. Skin and english for fifth, subcutaneous tissue disorders. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. Research Paper? Myalgia, muscular weakness, pain in extremity. Renal and urinary disorders. General disorders and administration site conditions. Malaise, injection site pain, asthenia. Injury, poisoning and procedural complications. Focal upper limb spasticity associated with stroke. System Organ Class.
Nervous system disorders. English Essay Topics For Fifth? Hypoasthesia, headache, paraesthesia, incoordination, amnesia. Mla Style Paper? Ear and labyrinth disorders. To Write History Essay? Nausea, oral paraesthesia. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders. Dermatitis, pruritus, rash. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. Pain in extremity, muscle weakness. General disorders and administration site conditions.
Injection site pain, pyrexia, influenza-like illness, injection site haemorrhage, injection site irritation. Asthenia, pain, injection site hypersensitivity, malaise, peripheral oedema. Some of the uncommon events may be disease related. Focal lower limb spasticity associated with stroke. System Organ Class. Skin and research paper, subcutaneous tissue disorders. To Write History Introduction? Musculoskeletal and research paper, connective tissue disorders. Arthralgia, musculoskeletal stiffness.
General disorders and over limit, administration site conditions. System Organ Class. Nervous system disorders. Dizziness, facial paresis, facial palsy. Paper? Punctate keratitis, lagophthalmos, dry eye, photophobia, eye irritation, lacrimation increase.
Keratitis, ectropion, diplopia, entropion, visual disturbance, blurred vision. Corneal ulceration, corneal epithelium defect, corneal perforation. Institute Essay? Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders. General disorders and administration site conditions. Research Mla Style Paper? Irritation, face oedema. System Organ Class.
Infections and american introduction, infestations. Rhinitis, upper respiratory infection. Nervous system disorders. Paper? Dizziness, hypertonia, hypoaesthesia, somnolence, headache. Diplopia, eyelid ptosis. Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders. Dry mouth, nausea. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders.
Musculoskeletal stiffness and musculoskeletal soreness. General disorders and administration site conditions. Asthenia, influenza-like illness, malaise. System Organ Class. Nervous system disorders. Headache*, migraine*, facial paresis. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. Neck pain, myalgia, musculoskeletal pain, musculoskeletal stiffness, muscle spasms, muscle tightness, muscular weakness. General disorders and administration site conditions. Injection site pain. * In placebo-controlled trials, headache and migraine, including serious cases of intractable or worsening of essay about bribery, headache/migraine, were reported more frequently with BOTOX (9%) than with placebo (6%). They typically occurred within the first month after the mla style injections and their incidence declined with repeated treatments.
System Organ Class. English Essay For Fifth? Infections and paper, infestations. Urinary tract infection. Renal and for fifth, urinary disorders. Urinary retention, pollakiuria, leukocyturia. Research Mla Style Paper? Residual urine volume* *elevated post-void residual urine volume (PVR) not requiring catheterisation. #8224; procedure-related adverse reactions. In the essay phase 3 clinical trials urinary tract infection was reported in 25.5% of patients treated with BOTOX 100 Units and 9.6% of patients treated with placebo. Urinary retention was reported in 5.8% of patients treated with BOTOX 100 Units and in research paper, 0.4% of patients treated with placebo. Clean intermittent catheterisation was initiated in 6.5% of patients following treatment with BOTOX 100 Units versus 0.4% in the placebo group.
Overall, 42.5% of patients (n = 470) were #8805; 65 years of age and 15.1% (n = 167) were #8805; 75 years of age. No overall difference in the safety profile following BOTOX treatment was observed between patients #8805; 65 years compared to patients 65 years in these studies, with the exception of urinary tract infection where the incidence was higher in elderly patients in both the placebo and BOTOX groups compared to the younger patients. No change was observed in the overall safety profile with repeat dosing. Urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity. System Organ Class.
Infections and infestations. Urinary tract infection a, b , bacteriuria b. Residual urine volume** b. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. English? Muscular weakness#8224; a , muscle spasm a. Renal and urinary disorders. Urinary retention a, b. Mla Style Paper? Haematuria* a, b , bladder diverticulum a , dysuria* b. General disorders and administration site conditions. Fatigue#8224; a , gait disturbance#8224; a. Injury, poisoning and procedural complications. Autonomic dysreflexia* a , fall#8224; a. * procedure-related adverse reactions. What To Write History Essay? ** elevated PVR not requiring catheterisation. #8224; only in multiple sclerosis. a Adverse reactions occurring in the pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials. b Adverse reactions occurring in the post-approval study of BOTOX 100U in MS patients not catheterising at baseline. In the research mla style paper phase 3 clinical trials, urinary tract infection was reported in 49% of patients treated with BOTOX 200 Units and in 36% of introduction, patients treated with placebo (in multiple sclerosis patients: 53% vs. 29%, respectively; in spinal cord injury patients: 45% vs.
42%, respectively). Urinary retention was reported in mla style paper, 17% of patients treated with BOTOX 200 Units and in 3% of patients treated with placebo (in multiple sclerosis patients: 29% vs. 4%, respectively; in what in a history, spinal cord injury patients: 5% vs. 1%, respectively). Among patients who were not catheterising at baseline prior to treatment, catheterisation was initiated in 39% following treatment with BOTOX 200 Units versus 17% on placebo.
The risk of urinary retention increased in patients older than 65 years. No change in the type and frequency of adverse reactions was observed following 2 treatments. In the post-approval study of BOTOX 100 Units in MS patients not catheterising at paper baseline, no difference on the MS exacerbation annualised rate (i.e. number of MS exacerbation events per patient-year) was observed (BOTOX=0, placebo=0.07). Catheterisation was initiated in 15.2% of patients following treatment with BOTOX 100 Units versus 2.6% on placebo (refer to Section 5.1). SKIN AND SKIN APPENDAGE DISORDER: Primary hyperhidrosis of the what to write in a introduction axillae. System Organ Class. Nervous system disorders. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders. Mla Style Paper? Hyperhidrosis (non axillary sweating), abnormal skin odour, pruritus, subcutaneous nodule, alopecia. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders.
Pain in extremity. Muscular weakness, myalgia, arthropathy. General disorders and administration site conditions. Injection site pain. Pain, injection site oedema, injection site haemorrhage, injection site hypersensitivity, injection site irritation, asthenia, injection site reactions.
Increase in intelligent essay, non axillary sweating was reported in 4.5% of patients within 1 month after injection and research, showed no pattern with respect to anatomical sites affected. Resolution was seen in approximately 30% of the patients within four months. Weakness of the arm has been also reported uncommonly (0.7%) and was mild, transient, did not require treatment and recovered without sequelae. This adverse event may be related to treatment, injection technique, or both. Essay And Corruption? In the uncommon event of muscle weakness being reported a neurological examination may be considered. In addition, a re-evaluation of injection technique prior to subsequent injection is advisable to ensure intradermal placement of injections. In an uncontrolled safety study of BOTOX (50 Units per axilla) in paediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age (n= 144), adverse reactions occurring in research mla style, more than a single patient (2 patients each) comprised injection site pain and hyperhidrosis (non-axillary sweating).
System Organ Class. Infections and infestations. Nervous system disorders. Blepharitis, eye pain, visual disturbance. Nausea, oral dryness. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders. Skin tightness, oedema (face, eyelid, periorbital), photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, dry skin. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. Localised muscle weakness. General disorders and essay about and corruption, administration site conditions. Flu syndrome, asthenia, fever.
The following adverse drug reactions were reported in the double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies following injection of BOTOX 24 Units for crow's feet lines alone: System Organ Class. General disorders and administration site conditions. Injection site haemorrhage*, injection site haematoma* Injection site pain*, injection site paraesthesia. *procedure-related adverse reactions. Crow's feet lines and glabellar lines. Research Mla Style? The following adverse drug reactions were reported in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies following injection of turing, BOTOX 44 Units (simultaneous treatment of crow's feet lines and research paper, glabellar lines): System Organ Class. General disorders and administration site conditions. Injection site haematoma* Injection site haemorrhage*, injection site pain* *procedure-related adverse reactions. No change was observed in the overall safety profile following repeat dosing. c) Additional information. The following list includes adverse drug reactions or other medically relevant adverse events that have been reported since the drug has been marketed, regardless of indication, and may be in addition to those cited in history essay, section 4.4 (Special warnings and research paper, precautions for use), and intelligent machinery essay, section 4.8 (Undesirable effects). System Organ Class.
Immune system disorders. Anaphylaxis, angioedema, serum sickness, urticaria. Research? Metabolism and nutrition disorders. Nervous system disorders. Brachial plexopathy, dysphonia, dysarthria, facial paresis, hypoaesthesia, muscle weakness, myasthenia gravis, peripheral neuropathy, paraesthesia, radiculopathy, seizures, syncope, facial palsy. English Essay Topics For Fifth? Angle-closure glaucoma (for treatment of blepharospasm), lagophthalmos, strabismus, blurred vision, visual disturbance. Ear and labyrinth disorders. Hypoacusis, tinnitus, vertigo.
Arrhythmia, myocardial infarction. Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders. Paper? Aspiration pneumonia (some with fatal outcome), dyspnoea, respiratory depression, respiratory failure. Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, dry mouth, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders. Alopecia, dermatitis psoriasiform, erythema multiforme, hyperhidrosis, madarosis, pruritus, rash.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. Muscle atrophy, myalgia. General disorders and administration site conditions. Denervation atrophy, malaise, pyrexia. Essay Topics For Fifth? Reporting of suspected adverse reactions. Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme, Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard. Overdose of BOTOX is paper, a relative term and depends upon dose, site of injection, and underlying tissue properties.
No cases of systemic toxicity resulting from accidental injection of BOTOX have been observed. Fashion Essay? Excessive doses may produce local, or distant, generalised and research paper, profound neuromuscular paralysis. No cases of ingestion of essay for fifth, BOTOX have been reported. Signs and mla style paper, symptoms of overdose are not apparent immediately post-injection. Should accidental injection or ingestion occur or overdose be suspected, the patient should be medically monitored for up to several weeks for progressive signs and symptoms of muscular weakness, which could be local or distant from the fashion institute of technology admissions essay site of injection and may include ptosis, diplopia, dysphagia, dysarthria, generalised weakness or respiratory failure. These patients should be considered for further medical evaluation and appropriate medical therapy immediately instituted, which may include hospitalisation.
If the musculature of the oropharynx and oesophagus are affected, aspiration may occur which may lead to research paper development of aspiration pneumonia. If the respiratory muscles become paralysed or sufficiently weakened, intubation and assisted respiration will be required until recovery takes place and going on college essays, may involve the need for a tracheostomy and prolonged mechanical ventilation, in addition to other general supportive care. ATC class M03A X01 and ATC class D11AX . The active constituent in BOTOX is a protein complex derived from mla style paper, Clostridium botulinum . The protein consists of type A neurotoxin and several other proteins. Under physiological conditions it is presumed that the graders complex dissociates and releases the pure neurotoxin. Mla Style? Clostridium botulinum toxin type A neurotoxin complex blocks peripheral acetyl choline release at presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals.
Intramuscular injection of the neurotoxin complex blocks cholinergic transport at the neuromuscular junction by preventing the release of acetylcholine. The nerve endings of the neuromuscular junction no longer respond to english essay graders nerve impulses and secretion of the chemotransmitter is research mla style paper, prevented (chemical denervation). Re-establishment of impulse transmission is by newly formed nerve endings and in a history essay introduction, motor end plates. Clinical evidence suggests that BOTOX reduces pain and research mla style, neurogenic inflammation and elevates cutaneous heat pain thresholds in a capsaicin induced trigeminal sensitization model. What To Write In A? Recovery after intramuscular injection takes place normally within 12 weeks of injection as nerve terminals sprout and reconnect with the endplates. After intradermal injection, where the target is the eccrine sweat glands, the effect lasted for about 4-7 months in patients treated with 50 Units per mla style axilla. There is intelligent machinery, limited clinical trial experience of the research use of BOTOX in primary axillary hyperhidrosis in adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18. A single, year long, uncontrolled, repeat dose, safety study was conducted in US paediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age (N=144) with severe primary hyperhidrosis of the axillae. Participants were primarily female (86.1%) and Caucasian (82.6%).
Participants were treated with a dose of turing essay, 50 Units per research axilla for a total dose of 100 Units per patient per treatment. Introduction? However, no dose finding studies have been conducted in adolescents so no recommendation on posology can be made. Efficacy and safety of BOTOX in this group have not been established. BOTOX blocks the release of neurotransmitters associated with the research paper genesis of pain. American Introduction? The presumed mechanism for headache prophylaxis is by blocking peripheral signals to the central nervous system, which inhibits central sensitisation, as suggested by research mla style pre-clinical and going over the word limit on college essays, clinical pharmacodynamic studies. Following intradetrusor injection, BOTOX affects the efferent pathways of detrusor activity via inhibition of paper, acetylcholine release. In addition BOTOX inhibits afferent neurotransmitters and sensory pathways.
Clinical efficacy and safety. Focal upper limb spasticity associated with stroke. In controlled and english topics graders, open, non-controlled studies, doses between 200 and 240 Units in wrist and flexor muscles were divided among the selected muscles at a given treatment session. In controlled studies, improvement in muscle tone occurred within two weeks with the peak effect generally seen within four to six weeks. In an open, non-controlled continuation study, most patients were re-injected after an interval of 12 to 16 weeks, when the effect on muscle tone had diminished. These patients received up to four injections with a maximal cumulative dose of 960 Units over research, 54 weeks. What To Write In A Essay Introduction? Focal lower limb spasticity associated with stroke. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, multi-centre, phase 3 clinical study was conducted in paper, adult post-stroke patients with lower limb spasticity affecting the ankle.
A total of 120 patients were randomised to receive either BOTOX (n=58; total dose of 300 Units) or placebo (n=62). Significant improvement compared to placebo was observed in the primary endpoint for the overall change from baseline up to intelligent machinery turing week 12 in Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) ankle score, which was calculated using the research mla style area under the curve (AUC) approach. Significant improvements compared to placebo were also observed for the mean change from baseline in what history essay, MAS ankle score at individual post-treatment visits at weeks 4, 6 and 8. The proportion of responders (patients with at least a 1 - grade improvement) was also significantly higher (67% - 68%) than in placebo - treated patients (31% - 36%) at these visits. BOTOX treatment was also associated with significant improvement in the investigator's clinical global impression (CGI) of functional disability compared to placebo although the difference was not significant for mla style paper, the patient's CGI. To Write Essay? In initial controlled clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy for cervical dystonia, doses of reconstituted BOTOX ranged from 140 to 280 Units.
In more recent studies, doses ranged from research mla style paper, 95 to 360 Units (with an approximate mean of 240 Units). Clinical improvement generally occurs within the first two weeks after injection. The maximum clinical benefit generally occurs by six weeks post-injection. The duration of beneficial effect reported in english essay for fifth graders, clinical studies showed substantial variation (from 2 to 33 weeks) with a typical duration of approximately 12 weeks. Research Mla Style? Chronic migraine patients without any concurrent headache prophylaxis who, during a 28-day baseline, had at least 4 episodes and #8805; 15 headache days (with at least 4 hours of continuous headache) with at least 50% being migraine/probable migraine, were studied in two Phase 3 clinical trials. Patients were allowed to use acute headache treatments and 66% overused acute treatments during the baseline period. English Topics? During the double-blind phase of the trials, the main results achieved after two BOTOX treatments administered at a 12-week interval are shown in research, the table below. Mean change from baseline at Week 24.
Frequency of headache days. To Write In A History Essay? Frequency of moderate/severe headache days. Frequency of migraine/probable migraine days. % patients with 50% reduction in headache days. Total cumulative hours of headache on headache days. Frequency of research mla style paper, headache episodes. Essay? Total HIT-6* scores. * Headache Impact Test. Research Mla Style? The treatment effect appeared smaller in the subgroup of male patients (n=188) than in the whole study population. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, 24-week phase 3 clinical studies were conducted in english essay for fifth graders, patients with overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency. Research Paper? A total of 1105 patients (mean age of 60 years), whose symptoms had not been adequately managed with at least one anticholinergic therapy (inadequate response or intolerable side effects), were randomised to receive either 100 Units of history introduction essay, BOTOX (n=557), or placebo (n=548), after having discontinued anticholinergics for research mla style paper, more than one week. Essay? Primary and Secondary Endpoints at Baseline and Change from Baseline in Pooled Pivotal Studies: Daily Frequency of mla style paper, Urinary Incontinence Episodes.
Mean Change #8224; at Week 2. Mean Change #8224; at Week 6. Mean Change #8224; at Week 12 a. Proportion with Positive Treatment Response using Treatment Benefit Scale (%) Daily Frequency of intelligent turing essay, Micturition Episodes. Mean Change #8224; at Week 12 b. Daily Frequency of research mla style, Urgency Episodes. And Corruption? Mean Change #8224; at Week 12 b. Incontinence Quality of Life Total Score. Mean Change #8224; at research mla style paper Week 12 bc. King's Health Questionnaire: Role Limitation. Mean Change #8224; at Week 12 bc. King's Health Questionnaire: Social Limitation. Mean Change #8224; at Week 12 bc. English Topics For Fifth? Percentage of patients achieving full continence at Week 12 (dry patients over a 3-day diary) Percentage of research, patients achieving reduction from baseline in urinary incontinence episodes at intelligent machinery turing Week 12. #8224; Least Squares (LS) mean changes are presented. a Co-primary endpoints. b Secondary endpoints. c Pre-defined minimally important change from baseline was +10 points for I-QOL and -5 points for KHQ. The median duration of response following BOTOX treatment, based on patient request for mla style paper, re-treatment, was 166 days ( 24 weeks).
The median duration of response, based on patient request for re-treatment, in patients who continued into the open label extension study and received treatments with only BOTOX 100 Units (N=438), was 212 days ( A total of 839 patients were evaluated in a long-term open-label extension study. For all efficacy endpoints, patients experienced consistent response with re-treatments. The mean reductions from intelligent machinery turing, baseline in daily frequency of urinary incontinence were -3.07 (n=341), -3.49 (n=292), and -3.49 (n=204) episodes at week 12 after the first, second, and third BOTOX 100 Unit treatments, respectively. The corresponding proportions of research paper, patients with a positive treatment response on the Treatment Benefit Scale were 63.6% (n=346), 76.9% (n=295), and 77.3% (n=207), respectively. In the graders pivotal studies, none of the 615 patients with analysed serum specimens developed neutralising antibodies after 1 3 treatments. In patients with analysed specimens from the pivotal phase 3 and the open-label extension studies, neutralising antibodies developed in research paper, 0 of 954 patients (0.0%) while receiving BOTOX 100 Unit doses and essay about and corruption, 3 of research mla style, 260 patients (1.2%) after subsequently receiving at least one 150 Unit dose. One of these three patients continued to experience clinical benefit. Compared to the overall BOTOX treated population, patients who developed neutralising antibodies generally had shorter duration of response and consequently received treatments more frequently (see section 4.4). Urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
Pivotal Phase 3 Clinical Trials. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 3 clinical studies were conducted in a total of 691 patients with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, who were not adequately managed with at least one anticholinergic agent and were either spontaneously voiding or using catheterisation. These patients were randomised to receive either 200 Units of english for fifth, BOTOX (n=227), 300 Units of BOTOX (n=223), or placebo (n=241). Mla Style Paper? Primary and what to write introduction, Secondary Endpoints at Baseline and Change from mla style paper, Baseline in Pooled Pivotal Studies: Weekly Frequency of Urinary Incontinence. Mean Change #8224; at Week 2. Mean Change #8224; at Week 6 a. Mean Change #8224; at Week 12. Maximum Cystometric Capacity (ml) Mean Change #8224; at american history introduction essay Week 6 b. Maximum Detrusor Pressure during 1st Involuntary Detrusor Contraction (cmH20) Mean Change #8224; at Week 6 b. Incontinence Quality of Life Total Score c,d. Mean Change #8224; at Week 6 b. Mean Change #8224; at Week 12.
Percentage of patients achieving full continence at Week 6 (dry patients over a 7 day diary) Percentage of patients achieving reduction from baseline in urinary incontinence episodes at Week 6. #8224; LS mean changes are presented. Research Mla Style? a Primary endpoint. Essay For Fifth Graders? b Secondary endpoints. c I-QOL total score scale ranges from 0 (maximum problem) to 100 (no problem at all). d In the pivotal studies, the pre-specified minimally important difference (MID) for I-QOL total score was 8 points based on MID estimates of research mla style paper, 4-11 points reported in neurogenic detrusor overactivity patients. The median duration of response, based on time to qualification for re-treatment (time to 50% reduction in intelligent essay, incontinence episodes), was 42 weeks in research paper, the 200 Unit dose group. The median interval between the first and second administrations was 42 weeks in patients with spinal cord injury and 45 weeks in patients with multiple sclerosis. The median duration of response, based on time to about bribery and corruption qualification for re-treatment (at least 1 urinary incontinence episode in paper, a 3 day diary), in patients who continued into the open label extension study and received treatments with only BOTOX 200 Units (N=174), was 264 days ( For all efficacy endpoints in the pivotal phase 3 studies, patients experienced consistent response with re-treatment (n=116). None of the 475 patients with analysed serum specimens developed neutralising antibodies after 1-2 treatments.
In patients with analysed specimens in the drug development program (including the open-label extension study), neutralising antibodies developed in 3 of 300 patients (1.0%) after receiving only BOTOX 200 Unit doses and 5 of 258 patients (1.9%) after receiving at least one 300 Unit dose. Four of these eight patients continued to experience clinical benefit. Compared to over the word limit essays the overall BOTOX treated population, patients who developed neutralising antibodies generally had shorter duration of research paper, response and consequently received treatments more frequently (see section 4.4). In the fashion admissions essay multiple sclerosis (MS) patients enrolled in research paper, the pivotal studies, the MS exacerbation annualised rate (i.e. number of turing essay, MS exacerbation events per patient year) was 0.23 in the 200 Unit dose group and paper, 0.20 in the placebo group. With repeated BOTOX treatments, including data from a long term study, the MS exacerbation annualised rate was 0.19 during each of the first two BOTOX treatment cycles.
A placebo controlled, double-blind post-approval study was conducted in about bribery and corruption, multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity who were not adequately managed with at least one anticholinergic agent and not catheterising at baseline. These patients were randomised to receive either 100 Units of BOTOX (n=66) or placebo (n=78). Research? Significant improvements compared to placebo in the primary efficacy variable of change from baseline in daily frequency of incontinence episodes were observed for BOTOX (100 Units) at the primary efficacy time point at week 6, including the percentage of american history essay, dry patients. Significant improvements in urodynamic parameters, and Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL), including avoidance limiting behaviour, psychosocial impact and research paper, social embarrassment were also observed. Results from the post-approval study are presented below: Primary and Secondary Endpoints at Baseline and Change from what to write history essay, Baseline in Post-Approval Study of BOTOX 100 Units in mla style, MS patients not catheterising at going limit essays baseline: Daily Frequency of mla style, Urinary Incontinence* Mean Change at Week 2. Mean Change at Week 6 a. Mean Change at Week 12. Maximum Cystometric Capacity (mL) Mean Change at Week 6 b. Essay About? Maximum Detrusor Pressure during 1 st Involuntary Detrusor Contraction.
Mean Change at Week 6 b. Incontinence Quality of Life Total Score c,d. Mean Change at research mla style Week 6 b. Mean Change at Week 12. * Percentage of to write history essay, dry patients (without incontinence) throughout week 6 was 53.0% (100 Unit BOTOX group) and 10.3% (placebo) a Primary endpoint. b Secondary endpoints. Mla Style Paper? c I-QOL total score scale ranges from in a introduction, 0 (maximum problem) to 100 (no problem at all). d The pre-specified minimally important difference (MID) for I-QOL total score was 11 points based on MID estimates of 4-11 points reported in neurogenic detrusor overactivity patients. Mla Style Paper? The median duration of response in this study, based on american history introduction patient request for re-treatment, was 362 days ( 52 weeks) for BOTOX 100 Unit dose group compared to 88 days ( 13 weeks) with placebo. SKIN AND SKIN APPENDAGE DISORDER. 537 patients with moderate to severe glabellar lines between the eyebrows seen at maximum frown have been included in clinical studies. BOTOX injections significantly reduced the severity of research, glabellar lines seen at maximum frown for up to american history introduction essay 4 months, as measured by the investigator assessment of glabellar line severity at maximum frown and by subject's global assessment of change in appearance of his/her glabellar lines seen at maximum frown.
Improvement generally occurred within one week of research mla style paper, treatment. None of the clinical endpoints included an objective evaluation of the psychological impact. On College? Thirty days after injection, 80% (325/405) of research mla style paper, BOTOX-treated patients were considered by investigators as treatment responders (none or mild severity at topics for fifth graders maximum frown), compared to 3% (4/132) of placebo-treated patients. At this same timepoint, 89% (362/405) of BOTOX-treated patients felt they had a moderate or better improvement, compared to 7% (9/132) of placebo-treated patients. BOTOX injections also significantly reduced the mla style severity of glabellar lines at rest. Going The Word On College? Of the 537 patients enrolled, 39% (210/537) had moderate to severe glabellar lines at rest (15% had no lines at rest). Of these, 74% (119/161) of BOTOX-treated patients were considered treatment responders (none or mild severity) thirty days after injection, compared with 20% (10/49) of placebo-treated patients. There is limited phase 3 clinical data with BOTOX in patients older than 65 years. Only 6.0% (32/537) of subjects were 65 years old and mla style, efficacy results obtained were lower in this population.
1362 patients with moderate to about bribery severe crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile, either alone (n=445, Study 191622-098) or also with moderate to severe glabellar lines seen at maximum frown (n=917, Study 191622-099), were enrolled. BOTOX injections significantly reduced the severity of mla style paper, crow's feet lines seen at the word on college maximum smile compared to placebo at all timepoints (p 0.001) for up to 5 months (median 4 months). Improvement assessed by the investigator occurred within one week of research, treatment. This was measured by the proportion of patients achieving a crow's feet lines severity rating of none or mild at maximum smile in going over on college essays, both pivotal studies; until day 150 (end of study) in Study 191622-098 and research paper, day 120 (end of first treatment cycle) in Study 191622-099. For both investigator and subject assessments, the proportion of fashion institute of technology admissions essay, subjects achieving none or mild crow's feet lines severity seen at maximum smile was greater in patients with moderate crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile at mla style baseline, compared to patients with severe crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile at what to write in a baseline. Table 1 summarises results at day 30, the research mla style timepoint of the primary efficacy endpoint.
In Study 191622-104 (extension to Study 191622-099), 101 patients previously randomised to placebo were enrolled to receive their first treatment at the 44 Units dose. Patients treated with BOTOX had a statistically significant benefit in essay bribery and corruption, the primary efficacy endpoint compared to placebo at day 30 following their first active treatment. The response rate was similar to the 44 Units group at day 30 following first treatment in Study 191622-099. A total of 123 patients received 4 cycles of 44 Units BOTOX for combined crow's feet and glabellar lines treatment. Day 30: Investigator and Patient Assessment of Crow's Feet Lines Seen at research Maximum Smile - Responder Rates (% of Patients Achieving Crow's Feet Lines Severity Rating of None or Mild) (crow's feet lines) (crow's feet lines) (24 Units crow's feet lines; 20 Units glabellar lines) *p 0.001 (BOTOX vs placebo) Improvements from baseline in subject-assessment of the appearance of crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile were seen for what history introduction, BOTOX (24 Units and 44 Units) compared to placebo, at day 30 and at research all timepoints following each treatment cycle in both pivotal studies (p0.001).
Treatment with BOTOX 24 Units also significantly reduced the severity of crow's feet lines at rest. Of the essay about bribery 528 patients treated, 63% (330/528) had moderate to severe crow's feet lines at paper rest at baseline. American History Introduction Essay? Of these, 58% (192/330) of research mla style paper, BOTOX-treated patients were considered treatment responders (none or mild severity) thirty days after injection, compared with 11% (39/352) of placebo-treated patients. Fashion Admissions? Improvements in subject's self-assessment of age and attractiveness were also seen for mla style paper, BOTOX (24 Units and 44 Units) compared to machinery turing placebo using the research mla style Facial Line Outcomes (FLO-11) questionnaire, at the primary timepoint of day 30 (p0.001) and at all subsequent timepoints in both pivotal studies. In the pivotal studies, 3.9% (53/1362) of patients were older than 65 years of age. Patients in this age group had a treatment response as assessed by the investigator, of 36% (at day 30) for history essay, BOTOX (24 Units and 44 Units).When analysed by paper age groups of #8804;50 years and 50 years, both populations demonstrated statistically significant improvements compared to placebo. About Bribery And Corruption? Treatment response for research mla style paper, BOTOX 24 Units, as assessed by the investigator, was lower in the group of subjects 50 years of age than those #8804;50 years of over the word essays, age (42.0% and 71.2%, respectively). Overall BOTOX treatment response for crow's feet lines seen at maximum smile is lower (60%) than that observed with treatment for glabellar lines seen at maximum frown (80%).
916 patients (517 patients at 24 Units and 399 patients at 44 Units) treated with BOTOX had specimens analysed for antibody formation. No patients developed the presence of neutralising antibodies. a) General characteristics of the active substance: Classical absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination studies on the active substance have not been performed due to the extreme toxicity of research mla style paper, botulinum toxin type A. b) Characteristics in patients: Human ADME studies have not been performed due to what in a history introduction the nature of the product. It is believed that little systemic distribution of therapeutic doses of BOTOX occurs. BOTOX is probably metabolised by proteases and the molecular components recycled through normal metabolic pathways. Non-clinical data based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity reveal no special hazard for humans other than exaggerated pharmacological effects predictable at high doses, given the neurotoxic nature of BOTOX. Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted.
In monkeys receiving a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of BOTOX, the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) ranged from 4 to research mla style paper 24 Units/kg. The i.m. LD 50 was reported to be 39 Units/kg. Toxicity on repeated injection. In three different studies (six months in rats; 20 weeks in juvenile monkeys; 1 year in monkeys) where the animals received i.m. injections, the NOEL was at the following respective BOTOX dosage levels: 4 Units/kg, 8 Units/kg and american history essay, 4 Units/kg. Research Mla Style Paper? The main systemic effect was a transient decrease in going over on college, body weight gain. There was no indication of a cumulative effect in research, the animal studies when BOTOX was given at dosage intervals of in a essay introduction, 1 month or greater. Research Mla Style Paper? Decrease in bodyweight was observed following a single intradetrusor injection of 10 Units/kg BOTOX in rats. To simulate inadvertent injection, a single dose of bribery and corruption, BOTOX ( 7 Units/kg) was administered into the prostatic urethra and proximal rectum, the seminal vesicle and urinary bladder wall, or the uterus of monkeys ( 3 Units/kg) without adverse clinical effects. However, bladder stones have been observed in monkeys given a single dose of BOTOX to research the prostatic urethra and proximal rectum, and in american history, a repeated dose intraprostatic study.
Due to anatomical differences the clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. In a 9 month repeat dose intradetrusor study (4 injections), eyelid ptosis was observed at mla style 24 Units/kg, and mortality was observed at doses #8805;24 Units/kg. Intelligent Essay? No adverse effects were observed in monkeys at 12 Units/kg, which corresponds to a 3-fold greater exposure than the recommended clinical dose of 200 Units for urinary incontinence due to mla style paper neurogenic detrusor overactivity (based on a 50 kg person). BOTOX was shown not to cause ocular or dermal irritation, or give rise to toxicity when injected into english essay topics for fifth graders the vitreous body in rabbits. Allergic or inflammatory reactions in the area of the injection sites are rarely observed after BOTOX administration. However, formation of haematoma may occur.
When pregnant mice and rats were injected intramuscularly during the period of organogenesis, the developmental NOEL of BOTOX was at 4 Units/kg. Reductions in paper, ossification were observed at 8 and 16 Units/kg (mice) and institute admissions, reduced ossification of the hyoid bone at 16 Units/kg (rats). Reduced foetal body weights were observed at mla style paper 8 and 16 Units/kg (rats). In a range-finding study in rabbits, daily injections at dosages of about bribery, 0.5 Units/kg/day (days 6 to 18 of gestation), and paper, 4 and 6 Units/kg (administered on days 6 and 13 of gestation), caused death and abortions among surviving dams. Limit On College? External malformations were observed in one foetus each in the 0.125 Units/kg/day and the 2 Units/kg dosage groups. The rabbit appears to be a very sensitive species to research BOTOX treatment. Impairment of fertility and reproduction. The reproductive NOEL following i.m. injection of BOTOX was 4 Units/kg in male rats and introduction, 8 Units/kg in female rats. Mla Style? Higher dosages were associated with dose-dependent reductions in fertility. Provided impregnation occurred, there were no adverse effects on going over limit essays the numbers or viability of the embryos sired or conceived by treated male or female rats.
Pre- and research, post-natal developmental effects. In female rats, the reproductive NOEL was 16 Units/kg. The developmental NOEL was 4 Units/kg. BOTOX showed antigenicity in mice only in the presence of adjuvant. BOTOX was found to be slightly antigenic in what in a history essay introduction, the guinea pig. No haemolysis was detected up to 100 Units/ml of mla style paper, BOTOX in normal human blood. Machinery Turing? In the research mla style paper absence of history essay, compatibility studies, this medicinal product should not be mixed with other medicinal products. After reconstitution, stability has been demonstrated for 24 hours at mla style paper 2°C 8°C. From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately.
If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than 24 hours at 2°C to 8°C (see also section 6.6). Store in of technology, a refrigerator (2°C-8°C), or store in a freezer (at or below -5°C). For storage conditions of the reconstituted medicinal product see section 6.3. Clear glass vial, with rubber stopper and mla style, tamper-proof aluminium seal, containing white powder for solution for injection. #8226; Carton comprising one 100 Allergan Unit vial and package leaflet. Fashion Of Technology Essay? #8226; Packs containing one, two, three or six cartons. Not all pack sizes may be marketed. BOTOX is reconstituted prior to use with sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection). It is good practice to perform vial reconstitution and syringe preparation over plastic-lined paper towels to mla style catch any spillage. An appropriate amount of american introduction, diluent (see dilution table below) is drawn up into a syringe. The exposed portion of the rubber septum of the vial is research mla style paper, cleaned with alcohol (70%) prior to insertion of the needle.
Since BOTOX is denatured by bubbling or similar violent agitation, the diluent should be injected gently into the vial. History Essay? Discard the vial if a vacuum does not pull the research mla style paper diluent into the vial. Reconstituted BOTOX is a clear colourless to slightly yellow solution free of particulate matter. When reconstituted, BOTOX may be stored in what to write in a history essay introduction, a refrigerator (2-8°C) for up to 24 hours prior to use. After this period used or unused vials should be discarded. Each vial is for single use only. Care should be taken to use the correct diluent volume for research mla style, the presentation chosen to history prevent accidental overdose. If different vial sizes of BOTOX are being used as part of one injection procedure, care should be taken to use the mla style correct amount of diluent when reconstituting a particular number of units per 0.1 ml. Graders? The amount of research paper, diluent varies between BOTOX 50 Allergan Units, BOTOX 100 Allergan Units and BOTOX 200 Allergan Units. Essay Topics For Fifth Graders? Each syringe should be labelled accordingly. Mla Style Paper? Dilution table for BOTOX 50 , 100 and 200 Allergan Units vial size for all indications except bladder disorders: Amount of diluent (sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection)) added in english topics graders, a 50 Unit vial.
Amount of research mla style paper, diluent (sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection)) added in essay, a 100 Unit vial. Amount of research mla style, diluent (sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection)) added in a 200 Unit vial. It is recommended that a 100 Unit or two 50 Unit vials are used for convenience of reconstitution. Dilution instructions using two 50 Unit vials: #8226; Reconstitute two 50 Unit vials of BOTOX each with 5 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for intelligent turing essay, injection) and research mla style paper, mix the vials gently. On College Essays? #8226; Draw the 5 ml from each of the research paper vials into a single 10 ml syringe. English Graders? This will result in research mla style paper, a 10 ml syringe containing a total of 100 Units of reconstituted BOTOX. Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Dispose of going the word on college essays, any unused saline. Dilution instructions using a 100 Unit vial: #8226; Reconstitute a 100 Unit vial of BOTOX with 10 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) and mix gently. #8226; Draw the research 10 ml from the of technology admissions vial into a 10 ml syringe. This will result in a 10 ml syringe containing a total of 100 Units of reconstituted BOTOX.
Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Dispose of any unused saline. Dilution instructions using a 200 Unit vial: #8226; Reconstitute a 200 Unit vial of BOTOX with 8 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) and mix gently. #8226; Draw 4 ml from the vial into a 10 ml syringe. #8226; Complete the reconstitution by adding 6 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for mla style paper, injection) into the 10 ml syringe and mix gently. This will result in a 10 ml syringe containing a total of 100 Units of reconstituted BOTOX. Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Dispose of any unused saline. This product is for single use only and any unused reconstituted product should be disposed of. Urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity: It is recommended that a 200 Unit vial or two 100 Unit vials are used for convenience of of technology admissions, reconstitution . Dilution instructions using four 50 Unit vials:
#8226; Reconstitute four 50 Unit vials of BOTOX, each with 3 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) and mix the vials gently. #8226; Draw 3 ml from the research first vial and 1 ml from the second vial into one 10 ml syringe. #8226; Draw 3 ml from the third vial and 1 ml from the essay topics graders fourth vial into research paper a second 10 ml syringe. #8226; Draw the remaining 2 ml from the second and fourth vials into a third 10 ml syringe. #8226; Complete the reconstitution by adding 6 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) into machinery turing essay each of the three 10 ml syringes, and mix gently. This will result in three 10 ml syringes containing a total of 200 Units of reconstituted BOTOX. Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Dispose of any unused saline. Dilution instructions using two 100 Unit vials: #8226; Reconstitute two 100 Unit vials of BOTOX, each with 6 ml of paper, sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) and mix the vials gently. #8226; Draw 4 ml from each vial into each of two 10 ml syringes. #8226; Draw the remaining 2 ml from the word essays, each vial into a third 10 ml syringe. #8226; Complete the reconstitution by adding 6 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) into each of the 10 ml syringes, and mix gently. This will result in three 10 ml syringes containing a total of 200 Units of reconstituted BOTOX. Research Paper? Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Topics For Fifth Graders? Dispose of any unused saline. Dilution instructions using a 200 Unit vial: #8226; Reconstitute a 200 Unit vial of BOTOX with 6 ml of mla style, sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) and mix the vials gently. #8226; Draw 2 ml from the vial into each of three 10 ml syringes. #8226; Complete the going the word limit on college reconstitution by paper adding 8 ml of sterile unpreserved normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride for injection) into the word limit essays each of the 10 ml syringes, and mix gently. This will result in three 10 ml syringes containing a total of 200 Units of reconstituted BOTOX.
Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Dispose of paper, any unused saline. The 'unit' by english topics graders which the potency of preparations of BOTOX is measured should be used to calculate dosages of BOTOX only and is not transferable to other preparations of botulinum toxin. Research Mla Style Paper? For safe disposal, unused vials should be reconstituted with a small amount of essay, water then autoclaved. Any used vials, syringes, and spillages etc. should be autoclaved, or the paper residual BOTOX inactivated using dilute hypochlorite solution (0.5%).
Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements. The Parkway, Marlow, Bucks SL7 1YL, UK. English Essay For Fifth Graders? Address : Marlow International, The Parkway, Marlow, Bucks, SL7 1YL, UK. Telephone : +44 (0)1628 494444. Fax : +44 (0)1628 494449.
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La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose d’analyser l’emergence, au sein de l’univers deploye dans la tragicomedie, d’une apprehension nouvelle du monde. Research Mla Style Paper. Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l’?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. English Topics Graders. Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers l’analyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. Research Mla Style. ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on over limit essays pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. Mla Style Paper. ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on to write in a history essay pourra se (. Research Mla Style. ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Essay About And Corruption. ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. Research. La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Fashion Essay. Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde. Paper. Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desesperance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. Limit On College. J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde.
2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. Research Paper. Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. Essay. Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. Research Mla Style Paper. Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour. Intelligent. Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal.
Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. Research Mla Style Paper. El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. Fashion Of Technology. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Research. (. Going Limit. ) 6 F. Research Paper. de Rojas, ed. Essay. cit ., p. Research Mla Style. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. English Topics For Fifth Graders. Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre.
Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres. Mla Style. Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Going The Word Essays. Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. Research Mla Style. On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7.
8 Ed. What In A History Essay. cit ., p. Research Paper. 502. What. 9 Ed. Research Paper. cit ., p. Institute Of Technology Admissions. 509 ou 585 par exemple. Mla Style Paper. 10 Ed. History Introduction Essay. cit ., p. Mla Style Paper. 433. What To Write. 11 F. Mla Style Paper. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours (. Essay. ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. Research. ) 13 Ed. Intelligent Machinery Essay. cit ., p. Research Paper. 332 et 360. History. 14 Ed. Research Mla Style Paper. cit ., p. History Introduction. 416. Research Mla Style. 15 Ed. Fashion Admissions Essay. cit ., p. Mla Style. 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. Institute Of Technology. Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. Research. Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive.
Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. What To Write In A Introduction. Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. Research Mla Style. Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie. American History Essay. Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. Paper. Dans ces pratiques, on intelligent turing conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on research mla style paper y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. What In A History Introduction. Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on mla style paper ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. Machinery. Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. Mla Style Paper. De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Machinery. Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, « las cuentas del rosario »14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer. Paper. Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15.
5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. Going Over. La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. Research. Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. Over Limit Essays. Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. Paper. On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens.
16 Ed. Essay About Bribery. cit ., p. Paper. 290. Going Over The Word Limit On College. 17 Ed. Paper. cit ., p. What History. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. Paper. ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. Intelligent Essay. Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. Mla Style Paper. Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. Institute Of Technology Essay. Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. Paper. cit ., p. Topics For Fifth Graders. 290-291.
20 Ed. Research. cit ., p. What Essay Introduction. 297. Research Mla Style Paper. 21 Ed. Bribery. cit., p. Mla Style. 520. Intelligent Machinery Turing. 22 O. Mla Style. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. What To Write History Introduction. ) 7 « Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? », demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. Research. Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. Fashion Institute Of Technology Admissions Essay. Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : « el bien y el mal (. Research. ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca »20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. And Corruption. Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. Research Mla Style. Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. American History Essay. Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation. Research Paper. Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on american essay peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. Research. Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire.
Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. Over. De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. Research. La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Essay For Fifth. Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de personnages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite. Paper. Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxalement, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions.
Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. Over The Word Essays. L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. Paper. Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P. English Essay For Fifth. Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. Research Mla Style. ) 8 « Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire », s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. Intelligent Essay. La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique.
C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. Mla Style Paper. cit ., p. Over The Word Limit. 221. Research. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. Essay For Fifth Graders. ) 27 Ed. Mla Style Paper. cit ., p. Of Technology Admissions. 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, « en reprehension de los locos enamorados »25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. Research. Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto. Fashion Institute. Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. Mla Style. Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux « Melibeo soy »27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. Essay For Fifth Graders. Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. Paper. Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou.
Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. Topics For Fifth Graders. Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. Mla Style. Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. About And Corruption. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Research Paper. 45-46. Of Technology Essay. 32 lbid., p. Mla Style Paper. 317. 12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. Over The Word Limit On College. D'un cote on research mla style trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles.
Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. Fashion Institute Of Technology. De l'autre cote on research mla style trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on essay and corruption se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. Paper. La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. About Bribery. Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Research Paper. Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. Essay About Bribery And Corruption. Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. Mla Style Paper. Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : « la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison »32. History Essay. Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). Research Mla Style. Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. What To Write In A History Introduction. ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.
Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. Paper. ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. English Topics For Fifth Graders. Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on mla style verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. Going The Word Limit On College. En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. Research Paper. Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35. 14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. About Bribery And Corruption. Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. Research Mla Style. Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. Machinery. Quelques courts exemples.
Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. Research Mla Style. Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. Turing. ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. Paper. Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Bribery. Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. Mla Style Paper. La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse.
Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des « [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno »37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison. Topics. Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Research Paper. Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on english essay for fifth peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. Research Paper. Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. The Word On College Essays. La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. Research Paper. On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole.
Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on to write in a essay introduction pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). Research Paper. Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. American. Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. Research Mla Style. Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. Over Limit Essays. Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent. Research Mla Style Paper. Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on bribery and corruption entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on research mla style entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. What History. B. Research Mla Style Paper. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. History. ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Mla Style Paper. cit., p. Essay And Corruption. 331, 353, 358, etc. Mla Style Paper. 42 Ed. Going Over Limit Essays. cit ., p. Research. 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du « non » initial de la belle en un « oui » d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. About. Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41.
Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la superposition des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Research Mla Style. Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. Over The Word. Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance. Mla Style Paper. Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Bribery. Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler « cortes »42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoisement et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. Paper. Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide.
20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. For Fifth Graders. Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. Research Mla Style. Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Going Over The Word Essays. De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. Mla Style. Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. Limit. Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.
22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. Research Mla Style Paper. Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. Essay About Bribery And Corruption. ) tratar al cordon como cordon. Paper. (. About. ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. Paper. C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. The Word On College. cit ., p. Mla Style Paper. 421 et 538. Topics For Fifth. 48 Ed. Research Mla Style Paper. cit ., p. Essay About Bribery And Corruption. 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. Research. Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. The Word Limit On College Essays. Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise. Mla Style Paper. Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe.
Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. And Corruption. De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. Research Mla Style. Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. American Introduction Essay. Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. Mla Style. En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier. Fashion Institute Essay. Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. Research Mla Style. Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Going The Word Limit. L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. Research. Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. Intelligent Turing. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Paper. 1 (. What To Write Introduction. ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. Research Paper. Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre.
50 Ed. Graders. cit ., p. Research. 532 et 536. Going The Word Limit On College Essays. 51 Ed. Research Paper. cit., p. Machinery. 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. Mla Style Paper. C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. Intelligent Machinery. Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. Research Mla Style Paper. Il n'empeche. Essay For Fifth. La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime.
La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor. Research Mla Style Paper. Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. Of Technology Admissions. Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. Research Mla Style Paper. Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Turing. Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. Paper. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. In A Essay Introduction. p. Research Mla Style. 176.
Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54. 29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. American History Introduction. Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. Research Mla Style. Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. Over The Word Limit On College Essays. Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. Mla Style Paper. « Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? », interroge-t-il, en effet55. Fashion Institute Admissions Essay. C'est precisement dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort.
Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. Paper. Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57. Introduction. Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. Research. Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. Topics. Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in mla style paper, hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. Institute Of Technology. C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. Mla Style. C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : « Puso el pie en vazio »59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-telle en effet de facon significative. Going Over The Word Essays. Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur.
Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplacement vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. Paper. En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. About Bribery. « Nuestro gozo en el pozo »61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio. Research Mla Style. Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on intelligent machinery ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. Research Paper. Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Intelligent Machinery Turing. 63 , 64 J. Research Mla Style. Ruiz, Libro. Over The Word On College Essays. p. Paper. 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. What In A History Essay. Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. Research Mla Style Paper. Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes. What To Write In A Essay Introduction. Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu.
Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Mla Style Paper. On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. About And Corruption. Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. Mla Style. Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. English Essay Topics For Fifth Graders. En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entremetteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. Mla Style Paper. En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fern (. What History Essay Introduction. ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques.
Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. Mla Style Paper. Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion. Going Over. Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. Mla Style. C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Of Technology. Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. Research Paper. Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. Going Limit Essays. Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on mla style paper pourra consulter Vincent Parello, « Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. History Introduction. 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on research pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. Fashion. Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. Mla Style. Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Turing Essay. 29-44.
6 F. Research. de Rojas, ed. Limit On College Essays. cit ., p. Mla Style. 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 9 Ed. English Topics For Fifth Graders. cit ., p. Research Mla Style Paper. 509 ou 585 par exemple. 11 F. Essay. Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. Mla Style Paper. 213-230, voir p. Going Over The Word Limit On College Essays. 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro », Bulletin hispanique, n°1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. Research. 47-87. 17 Ed. Going Over On College Essays. cit ., p. Research. 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? » 22 O. About Bribery. Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine », dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. Research Paper. 125156.
24 J.-P. Going Over The Word. Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine », Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. Mla Style. 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. Essay. 18. 31 M. Mla Style. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Intelligent. 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. Research. 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Turing Essay. Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. Research Mla Style Paper. 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Essay Topics. B. Paper. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. American Introduction. 237, strophe 632, v. Research Mla Style. 1-2. 49 C. English Essay Topics Graders. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Research. 137-146. 53 D. Essay Topics. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Mla Style. p. Machinery Essay. 176.
62 Ed. Research Paper. cit ., p. Fashion Institute Admissions Essay. 617 619 notamment. 64 J. Research Paper. Ruiz, Libro. Essay Topics For Fifth. p. Research. 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina… , p. Of Technology Admissions. 21-29, p. Mla Style. 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Machinery Turing Essay. URL : http://babel.revues.org/206 ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644).
Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Research Paper. Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Bribery. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Research. Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016.
Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012. Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011.
Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007. La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003.
Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.
Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.
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Teamwork in the Workplace Essay Sample. What are the advantages and disadvantages of working in teams? By reference to relevant theory show how can the disadvantages be reduced or avoided. A team is a group of people working together to achieve the research mla style, same objectives. Katzenbach and Smith state in institute admissions their report The Discipline of research paper, Teams (1993) that ‘the essence of a team is common commitment. Fashion Of Technology! Without it, groups perform as individuals; with it, they become a powerful unit of collective performance.’ Throughout this study, I will analyse the many different advantages and disadvantages of working in teams and its effects on team members and their performance and commitment within the team. I will consider many different aspects of research mla style paper, team work and intelligent machinery essay refer to certain established theories in attempt to find ways of mla style, reducing or avoiding some of the disadvantages that will be discussed. These ideas will be further developed throughout the study. There are many advantages to working in teams as opposed to individual work. Teamwork can be beneficial not only to team members, but also to their team project as it enables members to share ideas with one another. It is suggested by Fincham and Rhodes (2005) that synergy occurs because discussion within groups generates more alternatives than individuals, tends to eliminate inferior contributions, averages out errors, and supports creative thinking.
This indicates that team members can brainstorm ideas together and analyse what are the best decisions to make in order to improve the essay, results of their task. Each member may have very different ideas to share with the rest of the team, this means that the research paper, team project will be scrutinised more closely and any parts of the work which may not have been clear can be improved. As team members strive to come to some sort of consensus about essay about and corruption what action to take, there must be a thorough decision process taking place in order for research paper, everyone to share their views and opinions. Another advantage that team work generates is the opportunity to build relationships with team members. Teamwork fulfils the affiliative needs of individuals as discovered by Sheldon and Bettencourt (2002).
These affiliative needs are the need to be included and the need for going on college essays, relatedness as described by Fincham and Rhodes (2005). In establishing relationships with team members, individuals may begin to feel more comfortable in sharing ideas with the research mla style, group. It creates a sense of unity amongst team members as they all aim to achieve the same result. This can be more interesting for turing, individuals as the social aspect of team working can make the task seem like less work. Peter Levin suggests in his book Successful Teamwork! (2005) that, you can get the same kind of bonding, exhilaration and mutual support and appreciation in mla style paper an academic team as in a sports team. This therefore indicates that by intelligent essay, having positive ‘’collaborative’’ relationships within the team, team members can help each other with the research mla style paper, work and can also make the experience more enjoyable. Fashion Of Technology Essay! When members enjoy the work, they are more motivated to be involved in the team work which will ultimately, hopefully improve the final result of the team project. Team work also develops the skills of research, its members. It allows team members to expand their ability to debate ideas, work with others and delegate certain tasks. Through team work, members can enhance their communication skills, which would not be possible through individual work.
It is introduction, vital to have interaction with one another in research paper teamwork, without this, the team will not be effective. Another benefit that you’ll get from working in a team is that it will give you a wider appreciation of ‘learning’. You’ll see that the ability to work creatively and effectively in a team is a ‘skill for topics, learning’ as well as a ‘skill for research paper, employability.’ Levin (2005) He suggests here that by improving these vital skills through teamwork, one may become more employable, simply because employers value such skills and often require employees to work in teams. Machinery Turing! This can make the recruitment process more efficient as employers will not need to spend as much time and money on training employees to improve these vital skills. Of course with the research paper, many advantages of teamwork, one can find several disadvantages of working in teams. A disadvantage of teamwork may be the fact that it is very time consuming and may take members a long time to make decisions, as all viewpoints of team members need to be considered. It may take a while for team members to come to an agreement of what should be done or where to meet and when. To some members, meetings become a chore as suggested by Katzenbach and Smith (1993). To Write History Essay Introduction! During the decision process, there is a threat that not all members are fully participating in the group work or may agree with the rest of the team.
Fincham and Rhodes (2005) imply that sometimes an individual’s personal goals conflict with the research paper, group’s goals; and if he or she is not prepared to going on college, modify his or her personal goals, dissatisfaction with the research mla style paper, group becomes almost inevitable. The individual is then identified as a deviate. This ‘deviate’ member may cause problems in the dynamics of the group, such as conflict between group members or lack of participation from american essay others. If there is conflict in mla style paper the team or if there are not good relations between team members, individuals may be reluctant to share ideas as they may be intimidated or may fear being judged by others in the group. This is known as Groupthink discovered by in a introduction, Janis (1972). For these team members, team work may not be enjoyable and research mla style paper therefore, they may feel demotivated to do the essay, work and at times may feel estranged from the group. Theorists such as Belbin (1981, 1993) have discovered that in teams, one can find many different personality types and research mla style paper therefore different roles of team members. In this case it is possible that a member of the team may show more leader like qualities, this could become disadvantageous to the team as the leader may attempt to dominate the group work and not consider the needs or views of other team members.
This again could create conflict and unease amongst group members and will ultimately affect the over limit on college, collaboration of the mla style paper, group project. Levin (2005) suggests that the idea of a team is to share the same objectives. This may not always be the case if team members have never met before and are not fully clear of the task set. This can lead to confusion between members and may mean that some team members are unwilling to be told by their peers what to do. This is an example on ineffective team work. A further disadvantage of teamwork may be that the essay topics graders, team has existed too long and inspiration of new ideas has expired. This idea is discussed in Fincham and Rhodes (2005). There is a risk of team members becoming too friendly with each other and that friendships and professional relationships may be difficult to distinguish. If this occurs, team work is research paper, affected as it may be easy for team members to become distracted by machinery, personal issues rather than focussing on the task set.
In this way team work may become less effective. It is important that team members remain professional when working in teams. There is a risk of group conformity during teamwork as discovered by Solomon Asch (1951). He found that when giving people a choice many will choose what other team members have decided, even if they know that it is not the right choice. Research Mla Style! Reasons for over the word limit on college essays, group conformity may be that team members do not want to contradict other’s viewpoints, or simply do not want to be seen as making the wrong choice. This is not beneficial to research, the team work as ideas and decisions are not truly examined and may mean that the wrong choices are made.
In order to reduce or even avoid these disadvantages I will now continue by referring to relevant theories to find suggestions of of technology, dealing with these disadvantages of team work. Firstly, a way to research, avoid team members wasting time and discouragement during team work is to establish ‘group norms’. These represent the expectations within the group for appropriate behaviour of group members (Fincham Rhodes 2005). This means that if the essay bribery and corruption, group collaboratively decide to adopt a positive and thorough work ethic, each member will hopefully have this attitude to the group task. It also shows that members are working together to achieve the team’s goals. Team members could focus of the research, reflexivity of the group to overcome conflict. Fincham and Rhodes (2005) describe reflexivity as the fashion, ability of the research mla style paper, team to of technology admissions essay, reflect critically on research paper the way it tackles tasks or members relate to one another. Basically, if the team discover that there is essay, too much social cohesion, they may decide to reshuffle allocated jobs to research paper, certain members in order to keep the team focussed on the job. What To Write In A History Essay! It can also make the work more interesting. In order to have the most effective and compatible team, employers may consider analysing team members according to Belbin’s team model (1982, 1993) as previously mentioned.
It was his idea to research mla style paper, select members for skill and potential, not personality. (Katzenbach Smith 1993) Employers can then construct a team ensuring there are members who personify each of the suggested roles such as; a Coordinator, a Plant, an Implementer, a Monitor Evaluator, Shaper etc. What To Write In A Essay Introduction! This could mean that team members are able to work well together and enhance the project through all the research mla style paper, different skills and expertise of each member and intelligent turing role. It also reduces the threat of conflict between members who may portray similar roles such as leadership characteristics; where there could be a struggle of power. On the other hand, there may be a slight risk of members feeling that they need to fulfil the mla style, expectations of their roles. This may make them feel under pressure and may distract them from fully participating in the team work. Another way to overcome conflict may be to history introduction essay, carry out ‘Step Laddering’ (S.
G. Rogelberg, J. L. Bames-Farrell, C. A. Research Mla Style Paper! Lowe, 1992), a technique which enables team members to discuss any issues they may have with the institute admissions essay, team and any solutions they have to problems which have been raised. For example one could suggest delegating certain tasks to team members in order to take advantage of paper, each other’s expertise. This technique encourages communication between the team members and history introduction helps them highlight their problems and find solutions together. A result of Step Laddering is mla style, improved relations between team members and developed analytical skills as well as motivation to work hard on the task. The Ringelmann effect (Ingham et al. 1927) suggests that group performance is dependant on the size of a team.
He found that the more people in a team, the less effective the team was. This is because team members relied on others to introduction, take control of the task, instead of participating fully themselves. In order to have optimum participation, employers could compile effective teams by research paper, using fewer members. If a team of going the word on college, 4 members were created, each of them could take great responsibility in the task and carry out the work thoroughly. This would be more effective than a team of 8 members completing the same task, as each of the 8 members would have less responsibility and involvement in the team work. In conclusion, we can see that there are many advantages and disadvantages to working in teams.
Team work brings many social attributes which one would not find in mla style paper individual work. These social connections can be motivating and make the team work enjoyable. But, on the other hand, it may put pressure on team members to cooperate and try to work together. At times this may create conflict and a lack of motivation. Team work is also a good way for members to share ideas and create a more detailed piece of work as members come up with suggestions that others may not have considered.
It is an opportunity for team members to develop their communication and learning skills. This is very attractive to employers as it shows individuals are capable of working together to achieve the same objectives. It may not be favourable that team work may be more time consuming, but through work of positive ‘group norms’ and what to write essay motivation of team members, this problem may be reduced. All in all, teamwork is essentially beneficial, as many things could never be achieved without the work of teams. For example buildings could never be constructed by just one person and a pilot could not safely fly a plane without team work with an research mla style paper air traffic controller. It is in our human nature and at times our desire to work with others, so therefore we should be willing to overcome the disadvantages discussed by considering the machinery essay, suggested theories. Katzenbach, J. and Smith, D. (1993) The Discipline of Teams, USA: Harvard Business Review. Fincham, R. and mla style paper Rhodes, P. (2005) Principles of introduction, Organizational Behaviour, 4th Ed, United States: Oxford University Press Inc. Levin, P. Mla Style! (2005) Successful Teamwork!, England: Open University Press.
Sheldon, K. Fashion Institute Of Technology Admissions Essay! M. and Bettencourt, B. A.(2002) Psychological need-satisfaction and subjective well-being within social groups, London: British Journal of Social Psychology. Belbin, R. Research Mla Style! M. (1981) Management Teams: Why they succeed or fail, London: Heinemann. Asch, S. E. (1951) Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgment, Pittsburgh, USA: Carnegie Press. Rogelberg, S. G., Barnes-Farrell, J. L. and Lowe, C. A. Essay Introduction! (1992) The Stepladder Technique: an alternative group structure facilitating effective group decision-making: Journal of Applied Psychology. Janis, I. L. Research Mla Style! (1972) Victims of Groupthink, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ingham, A. Essay! G., Levinger, G., Graves, J. and Peckham, V. (1974) The Ringelmann Effect: Studies of group size and performance: Journal of Experimental Psychology.
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930 Words Sample Essay on Habits (free to read) Habits are either good or bad. Even good habits, if given free play, may turn into bad ones. For example, reading is a good habit. It helps in acquiring knowledge, in meaningful use of leisure time and research mla style paper healthy entertainment. But excess of reading books, magazines etc., is harmful.
It would soon tell upon one#8217;s health, resources, mental fitness and capacity to earn. Balance is the golden rule. That is why it is said, #8220;Excess of what to write in a history essay introduction, everything is bad#8221; nothing too much, not even good things and habits. Research Mla Style? It is easy to acquire bad and evil habits but not so, easy to about cultivate and acquire good ones. Mla Style Paper? Habits once acquired are difficult to get rid of. As a leopard cannot change its spots so one cannot change ones habits.
They die hard. They become part and parcel of one#8217;s nature and behaviour. Bad habits render a person useless an undesirable. Telling lies, back biting, spitting here and machinery turing there, smoking, or taking alcohol frequently and paper repeatedly are some of the bad habits. They can be as many as there are persons. Like a name, a habit sticks fast till the death. Habits can make or mar our fortunes. American History Introduction? They actually form the foundation of our character and destiny.
That is why it is said, #8220;Sow an act and paper you reap a habit. S6w a habit and topics for fifth graders you reap a character. Sow a character and you reap a destiny#8221;. They are the mla style paper very cornerstones of our character and what to write in a destiny. Research Mla Style? We are the makers or destroyers of our destiny. Because we cultivate, practice and acquire good or bad habits and their fruits accordingly. One may have a bad habit of flattering others or of making false promises. Similarly, one may have a bad habit if stealing things. One habit leads to another, and english topics then there is a sort of chain of research, habits to from which an escape is impossible, particularly in advanced age. Image Source : creatingwithin.com.
Anything done often and repeatedly becomes a habit the about bribery and corruption force of habit is very powerful. It makes the paper particular habit easy, automatic and repetitive. Habits have their origin in going over the word limit repetition, practice and regularity. The more we repeat and practice anything, the easier, permanent and automatic it becomes. It we do not practice and repeat a habit we feel uneasy and uncomfortable. Research? Take for example, the habit of taking tea. There are people who consume 20 or more cups of tea daily. They may do without food, newspapers or rest, but cannot dispense with hot cups of tea taken almost every hour of the day. They will feel sick, lethargic, bored and useless without enjoying their cups of tea. Same is the case with smokers or drunkards. Habits are too forceful to be avoided.
It is the constant and repeated use and practice that gives birth to a habit. Without constant and repeated use and frequency there cannot be any habit. American History Introduction Essay? Anything done or practiced occasionally cannot be called a habit. Habits are another name of addiction. Early and formative years of childhood are very important in research mla style paper this respect. Then it is very easy to have new impressions and influences.
It is the proper time to cultivate good habits. There are many forces and factors that pay an important role in the formation of habits. Early education, impressions, influences, company, associations etc, are some of the major factors in the formation of habits. Slowly antic gradually they get ingrained in our nature. Man is institute, also an imitative being. He likes to imitate others. Imitation also helps much in the formation of habits, bad as well as good.
Things done and practiced by elders, parents, relations, neighbors, friends, leaders, popular actors etc help them in their formation. For example, a boy who sees his father smoking is very likely to mla style have this evil habit. The boy may imagine that there must be some joy, excitement and thrill in the habit that is intelligent essay, why his father indulged in research mla style it. One day he may try it stealthily as smoking material is easily available in the home. Gradually he may become a habitual smoker and spread it among his friends and associates. Essay For Fifth? Curiosity, boredom, idleness, routine life also helps in formation of habits. It is said that an entry mind is research paper, a devil#8217;s workshop. An idle person is apt to develop bad habits like playing cards, gambling, stealing, drug-addiction etc.
Bad company and association often lead innocent boy#8217;s mad girls#8217; into the vicious habits. A drug-addict-may offers a drug, free of cost, to his friend at first and thereby helps him form a bad habit of going over limit on college, taking drugs. One requires a lot of money to satisfy evil habits like drinking, smoking, drug-addiction etc. They may ultimately lead a person to stealing, lying, borrowing and mla style even worse actions. Man can be said to be a bundle of habits. They may be good or bad. There cannot be a person wholly good or wholly evil. Speaking truth, frankness, honesty, service to others, cleanliness, reading good books etc., are some of the good habits. They must be encouraged and helped among the young men and women.
Good habits should be appreciated, encouraged and rewarded, #8220;Example is better than precept#8221;. We should always put examples of good and meaningful habits before the children and young men and going over the word limit essays women. We must create an atmosphere where good habits are always infectious. Therefore, we should always be alert and mla style watchful in essay topics graders formation of habits. Bad habits should be nipped in the bud and good ones should be tried and practiced again and again, for they would die and perish for want of these.
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Crank By Ellen Hopkins Essays and mla style, Research Papers. Section 1 – Book Info Name of Book: Crank Author: Ellen Hopkins Publisher: Simon Schuster Where . Published: New York, New York 10020 When Published: 2004 Number of Pages: 537 Length to read: 3 weeks Section 2 – Authors Purpose The authors purpose in going over the word essays Crank is to inform about the dangers of drugs, and how they can affect everyone around you. The whole book is an mla style paper example of the things that can happen if you were to do those drugs, the english topics graders, way she gets addicted and how it consumes. 2006 singles , Addiction , Attention 786 Words | 3 Pages. 3_7 For my analytical response, I chose to do my favorite book Crank by Ellen Hopkins . She is a very realistic . writer. Her books are amazing. Let me give you my take on her books. Mla Style. Her books are very helpful to young adults and going limit essays, teens. We can relate so well to research mla style paper, what her daughter was going through. Essay Bribery And Corruption. Well except the research paper, drugs thing on part. Almost every book of hers that I have read is based on true events that happened in her life.
Crank is about her oldest daughter and what she went through when she. Adolescence , American film actors , American television actors 486 Words | 2 Pages. ? Crank by Ellen Hopkins Crank by Ellen Hopkins is based on a sixteen . year old girl named Kristina, who ends up going down the wrong path during a vacation to visit her father. In this writing the theme is loud and clear for the reader; the horror and english graders, risks of illegal drugs, what the mla style, “monster” can do to ones life, and how the drugs can set you for downward spiral. Kristina a 16 year old leaves home in Nevada to american history introduction, visit her absent father in Albuquerque for three weeks. Kristina soon meets a boy. Adolescence , Drug , Drug addiction 503 Words | 2 Pages. Fallout by Ellen Hopkins: Book Report.
Desiree Apple Fallout by Ellen Hopkins 665 Pages P.S. I am sorry the summary is so long but I wanted to mla style paper, make sure everything in . the book was covered and there being 3 people makes it 2 times longer. The novel is a memoir of the lives of three children of a meth-addicted mother, Kristina, and how her addiction affected their lives. They now live in different homes, with different parents, as well as different last names. Each of them has a different story, some more fortunate than others. Hunter. Adoption , Anxiety , Debut albums 1924 Words | 5 Pages. IRA - Reader Response Sheet Name Chelsea Moore Title of fashion of technology essay, Book / Author: Burned/ Ellen Hopkins # of pages 531 Directions: . Section your book into paper, 4 parts.
Write a response for each part that is your thoughts, feelings, reactions, connections, questions, etc. about what you read. History Introduction Essay. DO NOT WRITE A PLOT SUMMARY. |Part I: pages: 1-132 |Part II: pages 132-264 | |Right now I have. Love 1881 Words | 5 Pages. was a teenager (“ Ellen DeGeneres”, U*X*L). Research Paper. After the divorce, Degeneres and graders, her mother moved to Atlanta. There, DeGeneres found her mother . getting sadder and sadder. So she turned to comedy in trying to cheer her mother up (“ Ellen DeGeneres”, U*X*L). Research. As DeGeneres grew older, she has waited tables, sold vacuum cleaners, worked as a legal secretary, and even painted houses (“ Ellen DeGeneres”, Newsmakers.) DeGeneres wanted to be a veterinarian, but she was “not book smart” (“ Ellen DeGeneres”, U*X*L).
Conan O'Brien , Ellen DeGeneres , Johnny Carson 1066 Words | 3 Pages. share one thing in common; the desire to escape who they are and essays, get lost in a short lived pleasure. Mla Style Paper. Its takes a very empty person to fall into the security . of history introduction, a drug addiction and a very strong person to find their way out of one. The book Crank , by Ellen Hopkins , is a story about a monster. This monster is in fact much scarier than any ones you’ll find in a horror movie. The book starts out with Kristina, a good girl from a quiet suburban home, whose life changes the paper, summer before her senior year.
Addiction , Cocaine , Drug abuse 987 Words | 3 Pages. April 7, 2013 Crank Crank by Ellen Hopkins is extremely inappropriate for teens to be reading. In . Essay About. Crank the reader is introduced to situations involving sex, drugs, violence and teen pregnancy. The main character Kristina goes from having a wonderful life to going through a downward spiral into a life of addiction. Kristina takes a trip to see her father for research mla style paper, the summer. Fashion Institute. While there, she meets a boy named Adam who introduces her to mla style paper, the “monster”. The drugs make her create an alter-ego named Bree. 1978 births , A Wonderful Life , Adolescence 517 Words | 2 Pages. Book Response Burned by Ellen Hopkins. Jenna Book Response English 12 – Kalin Burned written by Ellen Hopkins Is a great novel, and worth the time to read. . Burned is essay topics for fifth, about a teen girl who was born and raised a Mormon; Pattyn Von Stratten she is like most teenagers growing up.
Her family is extremely religious but in the same prospective her father is a drunk and research, very abusive. Pattyn is tired of living the american introduction essay, fairytale of a Mormon lifestyle and ready to be energized with her own free spirit and paper, way of life. Pattyn slowly starts to. A Great Way to Care , Ellen Hopkins , Family 722 Words | 2 Pages. The University of the South Pacific MM313 Dynamic Systems Experiment 2- Crank Mechanism Aim: To investigate the essay topics for fifth, relationship between . piston displacement and crank angle for different ratios between the connecting rod and the crank . Also to paper, look at the relationship between the turning moment on the word limit essays the crank shaft and paper, crank angle for a given force on the piston. Fashion Of Technology Essay. Equipment and Instrument: Introduction: A crank is an arm attached at right angles to research, a rotating shaft by which reciprocating. Al-Jazari , Connecting rod , Crank 984 Words | 5 Pages.
actually happened, the essay, endings wouldn’t be happy and I think that’s what the author wanted to research mla style, get across. Just because you make a mistake, doesn’t mean it . can be easily fixed, nothing is for fifth graders, easy and life doesn’t always turn out to be what you hoped. Ellen Hopkins does a very good job of putting that in perspective in all of her books. Family , Holger Ernst , Mother 3293 Words | 8 Pages. ance and belonging. Ellen herself effects this major change by force of her own will.
Realizing her own family is and research, always has been crumbly . old brick, not meant to about and corruption, stick together, she targets a foster family that looks nice and decides to research, belong to them. Going Over Limit On College. She saves her money and on Christmas Day appears on the foster family's doorstep, ready to present $160 to her new mama and secure a place in the family. Before Ellen targets the foster family as the one she wants, she is nearly alone in. African American , All rights reserved , Black people 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Conner Longmire Contemporary Authors, Period 8 7 December 2011 The Ignorance to mla style, Suffering The story of Ellen Foster is a beautifully . written novel that shows the true long-term affect of how abuse affects the child emotionally, spiritually and introduction essay, psychologically. The book Ellen Foster written by Kaye Gibbons is about a ten year old girl named Ellen Foster in how she deals with abuse from her intimidate family however, Grandmother, Aunts and research mla style, cousin. At the same time, she battles with racial discrimination. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 1046 Words | 3 Pages.
Ellen DeGeneres is an Emmy Award winning talk show host and an outstanding comedian. Some of you may know her as the voice of Dory on essay Finding . Nemo, or even as a judge on American Idol. Whatever you know her from, you probably know that Ellen isn’t afraid to be unique. Mla Style Paper. Ellen talks about going over the word limit on college being true to yourself. She says, “Find out mla style paper, who you are and be that person. That’s what your soul was put on american history essay this Earth to be. Find that truth, live that truth and everything else will come.” I chose Ellen for.
Academy Award , American Idol , Ellen DeGeneres 1249 Words | 3 Pages. admire is Ellen DeGeneres. I admire her for paper, many reasons. One of introduction, them is the positive effect that she has on many peoples lives. People write . to her all the time telling Ellen that her show is paper, what gets them through a difficult day. She's always helping people that could use it too. Her show is american introduction essay, always helping families out by giving them money, cars and paying tuition’s. Most of all the admire the positive outlook on life that she has about life, and how she remains true to herself. Ellen has received.
Academy Award , Coming out , Ellen 815 Words | 2 Pages. attention and care. However, Ellen , the main character and protagonist of the novel Ellen Foster, exemplifies a substantial . amount of independence and mature, rational thought as a ten-year-old girl. The recent death of her mother sends her on a quest for mla style paper, the ideal family, or anywhere her father, who had shown apathy to both she and her fragile mother, was not. Kaye Gibbons' use of simple diction, unmarked dialogue, and a unique story structure in her first novel, Ellen Foster, allows the reader to. Character , Ellen Foster , Fiction 769 Words | 4 Pages.
relevant facts According to the case, Ann Hopkins had worked successfully for Price Waterhouse since 1978 and was nominated for partnership . at Price Waterhouse in history introduction 1982. (p. 1) Out of research mla style, 88 candidates she was the only woman. English Essay Topics Graders. In the admissions process, forms were sent out to all Price Waterhouse partners of whom there were 662. These partners then submitted their comments about the candidates. . Only thirty-two partners, all male, responded about Hopkins . (p. 5) The forms were then tabulated to.
Discrimination , Ethics , Feminism 1727 Words | 5 Pages. Identical by Ellen Hopkins book report. Where no one can touch her, until, unbidden, she comes pouring out.” The author chose this subject because she had close friends growing up that were . sexually abused by mla style, their fathers also. I know this because I had read about an bribery interview of research mla style paper, Ellen Hopkins explaining why she wrote this book. IDENTICAL: Book review ? ? ? ? ? I rate this book five stars because it had an essay for fifth excellent story line, along with an excellent story teller. It speaks of dark subjects descriptively, that some might not want. Addiction , Borderline personality disorder , Child abuse 604 Words | 2 Pages.
September 13th, 2013 Crank by research mla style paper, Ellen Hopkins is a novel about english topics graders a high school girl who becomes involved in . drugs. Kristina’s character is an example of a bad role model in the way that she handles relationships, addictions, and her attitude. Research Paper. Kristina’s judgment is essay about bribery, shaky and mla style paper, her boy choices tend to lead her into trouble. Also, her addiction proves a valuable lesson of how one choice changes everything. She does nothing to try and control herself even though she is hooked. Going Over The Word On College Essays. She was bad characteristics. Adolescence , Choice , Debut albums 558 Words | 2 Pages.
Running head: Assignment 2: Ellen Zane – Leading Change at Tufts / NEMC 1 Ellen Zane – Leading Change at Tufts / NEMC . Lynda Walker Dr. Laura Forbes HSA 599 May 1st, 2013 Running head: Ellen Zane – Leading Change at Tufts / NEMC 2 The Boston area was a world-renowned destination for health care services. The Academic Medical Centers in Boston received $2.3 billion in National Institutes Health (NIH) research grant money. Hospitals in Massachusetts accumulated large. Boston , Health , Health care 986 Words | 4 Pages.
The poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins is research paper, recognized by critics as some of the most influential and powerful religious poetry in fashion of technology admissions essay all of history. . At the young age of fifteen he won the Highgate School Poetry prize and two years later received the Governor's Gold Medal for Latin Verse (website). However, despite this early recognition, he published very few poems over the course of his life, with the research mla style, majority of his poetry being published posthumously. What Essay Introduction. This can lead one to mla style, infer that his poetry was. Curtal sonnet , Gerard Manley Hopkins , God 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Johns Hopkins (May 19, 1795 – December 24, 1873) was an American entrepreneur, abolitionist and philanthropist of 19th-century Baltimore, . Maryland. American History Introduction. His bequests founded numerous institutions bearing his name, including Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. A biography entitled Johns Hopkins : A Silhouette written by his cousin, Helen Hopkins Thom, was published in.
Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ? Ann Hopkins Case Study Webster University Ann Hopkins Case Study Why Was Ann Hopkins Passed Over for . a Partnership? Give Examples of Events That Contributed to research, her Being Passed Over. Essay About And Corruption. Ann Hopkins was passed over for partnership for a number of reasons. Some of these reasons were valid areas of concern, however much of the justification had sexual overtones (Weisel, 1991, p. 2). Although Thomas Beyer supported Hopkins nomination for mla style, partner and supported with what seemed to of technology admissions, be a very well-written. Case study , Employment , Feminism 1455 Words | 4 Pages. Strategic Planning for John Hopkins. Strategic Planning for John Hopkins Hospins Introduction It is a fact that every . healthcare institution has to have proper strategies and management so as to realize success, stability and mla style paper, continuity. This research therefore takes to history introduction, analyze the strategies that are used by hospitals that deal in the provision of laboratory services.
Particularly, many hospitals have been able to accord the best of services to its patients and members of research mla style paper, the. Electronic health record , Health care , Health informatics 1760 Words | 6 Pages. ?Case Study: Depression Answer Sheet Ellen : Depression and going over the word limit on college, Suicidality Student Name: Donna Diagnosing Ellen 1a. Refer to . the DSM-IV checklist and list all symptoms that Ellen has that match the criteria for mla style paper, major depressive episode. Which of Ellen's symptoms meet any of the criteria? (Be sure to match specific symptoms with specific criteria.) DSM criteria #1 depressed mood most of the day. Correlating Behaviors v Ellen has reported that she had been distracted for part of the day, but quickly. Bipolar disorder , Depression , Dysthymia 1359 Words | 4 Pages. Biography- Ellen DeGeneres Birth: “For me it’s that I contributed… That I’m on this planet doing some good and making people happy. . That to what to write history introduction, me is the most important thing, that my hour of television is positive and upbeat and an antidote for all negative stuff in life.” This was written by mla style, Ellen Lee DeGeneres who was born on January 26, 1958 in what to write history essay introduction Metairie, Louisiana, a suburb of research paper, New Orleans. She was born to american introduction, Elliot and Betty DeGeneres, and has an older brother, Vance DeGeneres. Research Mla Style Paper. Her father was.
Academy Award , Comedy , Daytime Emmy Award 909 Words | 3 Pages. Ann Hopkins worked at Price Waterhouse's Office of history introduction, Government Services in Washington, D.C., for five years before she was proposed candidacy . for partnership in research 1982. She was neither offered nor denied admission to the partnership that year; instead, her candidacy was held for reconsideration the following year. Intelligent. When the partners in her office later refused her proposed partnership, she quit and sued Price Waterhouse under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 charging that the firm had discriminated. Adultism , Decision making , Discrimination 1325 Words | 4 Pages. Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) English biochemist awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, . with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins.
He also discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901. He was appointed President of the Royal Society from 1930 to 1935. born in mla style Eastbourne, Sussex, awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1918 and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1926. Other significant honours were his election. Frederick Gowland Hopkins , Jonas Salk , King's College London 1708 Words | 5 Pages. Gerard Manley Hopkins [1844-1899] Relevant Background • Hopkins was a priest who wrote Nature Poetry. • He celebrated beauty . in the natural world. He loved the freshness of essay about bribery, spring. • In many of his poems, like ‘Spring’, he linked beauty in research nature to prayer. • He thought that beauty in nature was a reminder of God’s love and greatness. • He thought that beauty in nature was a reminder of the innocence and purity of childhood. • He wrote this poem more than a hundred years ago. • Hopkins wrote in. Gerard Manley Hopkins , Meter , Poetry 1333 Words | 4 Pages. In the book Ellen Foster by Kaye Gibbons, Ellen is a lonely child.
She is in english topics a family where she is responsible for her mother’s . health and receives little love from her parents. She has few outlets and research, is forced to suffer the many traumas of her life alone. She eventually gets away from her family only to topics for fifth graders, find more unhappiness while continuing to observe the research, happiness of families surrounding her. And throughout the entire book she is graders, yearning to belong and become loved. It took Ellen five moves and. Black people , Discrimination , English-language films 1183 Words | 3 Pages. Ann Hopkins : Harvard Business Case Analysis #1 Ann Hopkins : Harvard Business Case Analysis #1 Why was Ann . Research Mla Style. Hopkins passed over for going over, a partnership? Give examples of research, events that contributed to her being passed over. The Supreme Court ruled Ann Hopkins was passed over for Price Waterhouse partnership because she was not a feminine woman (Selman and de Llose, 1990) calling it sexual discrimination. The partners claimed she needed help with personal and leadership qualities required of.
Discrimination , Feminism , Gender 1609 Words | 5 Pages. Ellen Moore has been assigned to essays, a project in South Korea. The project is a joint venture (JVI) between Western Systems Inc. (WSI), a North . Research Mla Style. American company and Korean Conglomerate Inc. (KCI), a Korean company. Going Over The Word Essays. Ellen was chosen to run the project on paper behalf of Andrew Kilpatrick, who is part of the System Consulting group at WSI. Andrew was to english for fifth, manage the project on a part time basis from North America. He chose Ellen to lead project on site as a result of her strengths in project management. Hangul , Kim Il-sung , Korea 1781 Words | 5 Pages.
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins Objective. The purposes of exercise 7.3 are twofold: (1) to acquaint students with an paper important U.S. Supreme Court . case related to performance appraisal; and (2) to allow students to consider the implications of this case as they relate to appraisal system development, implementation, and administration. Essay Graders. The background case information includes the specifics of a lawsuit filed against Price Waterhouse by a female manager ( Hopkins ), who was rejected as partner candidate. Appeal , Discrimination , Law 1473 Words | 5 Pages. Conflicts Analysis The troubled situation of JVC can be attributed to the major conflict between Ellen and Jack, causing another aggravating . conflict occurred consequently. Research Mla Style. a. The major conflict was between Ellen Moore and fashion institute, Jack Kim, with the following symptoms: - They had controversial issues during the first few weeks because they were clearly stepping upon each other's territory. Ellen understood that she was the co-project manager with Jack, but Jack believed that he was the sole project. Conflict , Culture , Dispute resolution 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Case 1: Ellen Moore (A): Living and research, Working in essay Korea 1. CQ: Is what happened to Ellen a surprise? Why or why not? Do you . Research. think what happened to Ellen would have happened to people like yourself, and from your background?
Why or why not? ------------------------------------------------- Considering the Korea’s cultural context it was not a surprise what happened to Ellen . First, the collective behavior is history introduction essay, highly influenced by the country national religion, the Confucian. Mla Style. Which dictates several. American way , Culture , Decision making 1427 Words | 5 Pages. “ ELLEN MOORE (A): LIVING AND WORKING IN KOREA” At first glance it looked like that the main problem about this case would be Korean’s team . and over limit essays, their lack of qualification and expertize in this System Implementation (SI) project, therefore without taking drastic measures and improvements they are not going to be able finish it in research mla style paper time. But the more I read, the more I understood that lack of experience is just one small piece of history essay introduction, problem set they had there. They had strong Cultural differences between.
Communication , Implementation , Korean language 1006 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ellen DeGeneres is widely known as a comedian, television show host, sitcom creator, and most of all an enjoyable happy person. Research. Elle DeGeneres . has made a passion of the word, what she does for a living and has contributed and research, donated thousands of dollars to turing, notable charities. Mla Style Paper. In 2006 she had donated thousands of dollars to the Hurricane Katrina cause which has greatly affected Tulane University. Tulane University had asked Ellen to write and of technology admissions essay, perform a speech at the 2006 spring commencement graduation and. Commencement speech , Communication , Graduation 1317 Words | 6 Pages. Ann Hopkins Case Analysis 1. What ethical problems do you see with the Price Waterhouse partnership evaluation system? The Price . Waterhouse partnership evaluation system has the research mla style paper, ethical problems that the sex discrimination. The Price Waterhouse most concerned about the interpersonal skill, therefore, Hopkins had been given advices to change her direct style and personal appearance.
For example, before Hipkins started working at Price Waterhouse, one partner told her that the firm prohibited. Discrimination , Employment , Ethics 625 Words | 3 Pages. Luke Marrone Professor Ward ENGL 0110 20 July 2013 Who is God? Gerard Hopkins spent his life finding the institute essay, answer through his poetry and . Research. exploring the nature around him. In Gerard Hopkins ' poem The Windhover there is intelligent essay, a representational allusion to research mla style, Christ and Jesus. The speaker praises the Lord by praising what he takes as a symbol for fashion of technology admissions, Christ. Throughout the research paper, poem the speaker symbolizes Christ's glory by the way the falcon reacts to the air, how it maneuvers and even characteristic traits. Falcon , Gerard Manley Hopkins , God 880 Words | 3 Pages. Ellen Moore: Living and Working in Korea. | Ellen Moore (A): Living and Working in Korea | |INBS 520 – Managing Global Workforce . American History. | | | | Ellen Moore, a co-senior consultant, is research mla style, assigned to work in Korea and lead a project | |with her Korean counterpart Jack. Turing Essay. Being a woman and having no experience with the | |Korean culture puts her at an early disadvantage which.
Culture , Decision making , Decision making software 1690 Words | 5 Pages. NHS Summer Reading 2014 2015 Grade 11. The personal account of an L.A gang banger 15.? ? U.S. Army Survival Handbook? . , Department of the research paper, Army. How to survive under the most adverse conditions. Fashion Institute Of Technology Admissions Essay. Poetry 16.? ? Crank ? , Ellen Hopkins , A teenagers struggle with crystal meth, told in mla style poetic form.
17.? ? Glass? , Ellen Hopkins . This picks up Crank a year later. 18.? ? Burned? , Ellen Hopkins . Growing up in an abusive household, told in verse. Mystery 19.? ? Falling? , Christopher Pike. FBI agent Kelly Feinman is on the trail of the “Acid Killer” . 1 , 14 , 22 704 Words | 1 Pages. Ellen Moore Living and Working in Korea. Ellen Moore. Living and working in Korea The case of essay topics, Ellen Moore is very interesting and diverse, because it shows different . reasons why problems can occur in a project management and teamwork and highlights how cultural differences can affect the paper, work in a very negative way. There are several reasons why the intelligent machinery essay, project has run into problems. Some of mla style paper, these could have been foreseen but some not. The main problem is that there were wrong decisions made when creating the team and also some risks. Construction , Management , Project 1013 Words | 3 Pages.
Ellen Moore: Living and Working in essay about bribery and corruption Korea. social events. 2. Ellen and Jack were both initially appointed as the research mla style, co-manager to history essay introduction, the SI project, however, from the organizational . structure perspective, the research mla style paper, power was not equally distributed between the two participants: Jack clearly had much more commanding authority than Ellen . English Essay Topics. With Andrew involved in mla style a distance manner and absented from daily management, and the other manager in the above hierarchy such as Mr. Park was only directly connected with Jack instead of Ellen , all of english topics graders, those factors. Cross-cultural communication , Culture , Geert Hofstede 1852 Words | 5 Pages.
?Artist Research – Mary Ellen Mark Mary Ellen Mark was born was born in 1940 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She showed great . interest in the visual arts from a young age and paper, attended the what essay, University of Philadelphia, where she graduated with a Master’s Degree in photojournalism (Habert). After graduating she received a scholarship to photograph Turkey and she also visited other European countries such as Greece, Spain, Germany, England, and Italy (“Mary”). In 1967, Mark moved to research paper, New York and began. Black-and-white , Camera , Color photography 1195 Words | 4 Pages. Mechanics of machines Lab report crank and connecting rod. ? Crank and Connecting Rod Introduction- The motion of assemblies is determined by intelligent machinery turing essay, the configuration of links and research, joints. Using the . configurations the operation of rotational and sliding joints are examined and observed.
This kind of mechanism is very commonplace in machines. Machines are made up of english essay topics graders, a number of parts and research mla style, relative motion between the various parts permits the working of the machine. As the crank is rotated the on college essays, rod starts moving but the paper, velocity is not uniform. It is greater towards. Classical mechanics , Clockwise , Debut albums 691 Words | 5 Pages.
Kristina’s and Peach’s Addiction Both Diary of an history introduction Exercise Addict by Peach Friedman and Crank by Ellen Hopkins , . Mla Style Paper. have a common theme of personal struggle that shows that it can be easily obtained through a number of history introduction, ways that can make one’s life go downhill from the moment the personal struggle takes place, and on. In Diary of an Exercise Addict, exercise addiction and bulimia take over the author/ main character- Peach Friedman’s life, and this memoir is written as if it is mla style paper, a diary and has different. Antagonist , Character , Coming out 1260 Words | 3 Pages. Our house was directly across the street from the clinic entrance of John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore . We lived downstairs rented the . upstairs rooms to graders, out-patients at the Clinic. One summer evening as I was fixing supper, there was a knock at the door. Research Paper. I opened it to see a truly awful looking man. 'Why, he's hardly taller than my eight-year-old,' I thought as I stared at the stooped, shriveled body.
But the appalling thing was his face, lopsided from essay swelling, red raw. Yet. 2006 albums , High Mileage , Little Man 994 Words | 3 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen DeGeneres's Commencement Speech. University's class of 2009, but Ellen DeGeneres was there to congratulate them as well! This class was dubbed the research, Katrina Class for being . survivors of the devastating Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Katrina was named one of the machinery turing, deadliest Hurricanes, causing more than 1,836 deaths. Tulane University is research paper, located in New Orleans, Louisiana, where the institute of technology admissions, most significant amount of deaths took place and 80 percent of the city was destroyed. These graduates have survived a lot , and Ellen wants to congratulate them. Commencement speech , Figure of speech , Graduation 1151 Words | 3 Pages.
Ellen Olenska as a Mythological Muse in the Age of Innocence. Ellen Olenska as a Mythological Muse in The Age of Innocence Long ago in ancient Greece, mythology was used to explain our world, our lives, . and mla style, most importantly, our interpersonal relationships. Still today Greek mythology is infused into essay bribery, the literature of almost every influential and lasting author, one of the more effective authors being Edith Wharton, author of research mla style, The Age of Innocence. The relationship between Newland Archer and Madame Ellen Olenska, two protagonists in Wharton's novel, is turing, an. Edith Wharton , Erato , Greek mythology 1282 Words | 4 Pages. Rhythm and Dictions in Gerard Manley Hopkins' Spring and Fall In Gerard Manley Hopkins ' Spring and paper, Fall, the speaker of the essay topics for fifth, poem describes the changing phases of an research mla style paper individual's understanding about loss . and death from of technology admissions essay a childhood to maturity. Throughout the poem, the child's innocence is gradually lost over time as her weeping for mla style paper, the dying leaves turns into weeping for institute, her own mortality. As if putting on a play for his readers, the poet incorporates visual images as well as aural effects into his poem. In Spring and Fall, Hopkins uses rhythm, word choice. Duns Scotus , Gerard Manley Hopkins , Meter 1522 Words | 5 Pages.
Case Analysis: Ellen Moore (a): Living and Working in Bahrain. 1. What would you advise Ellen to do and research, why? What should be her objectives? Are there objectives and actions consistent with what you would do . Fashion Of Technology Admissions. if you were in her situation? Even though Bahrain tended to research paper, be more progressive than many Middle Eastern countries in its attitude toward women, there were still many inequalities between genders. The current situation is that Ellen's general manager asked her to going the word essays, change her mind about accepting the research mla style, Account controlling position because of discriminatory. Culture , Female , Gender 1575 Words | 5 Pages. Pied Beauty - Gerard Manley Hopkins (Analysis) ? In this essay, I am going to explore and history, analyze how Gerard Manley Hopkins marries the two themes of religion and nature together in his . poem, “Pied Beauty”, and how these ideas are presented in terms of language, form, and structure. Firstly, Hopkins presents these two themes through peaceful imagery created by various aspects in the poem.
For example, this is evident in “Landscape plotted and research mla style, pieced – fold, fallow and plough”. The word choices in this line, include “plotted”, “pieced” and essay about and corruption, “plough”. Alliteration , Curtal sonnet , Gerard Manley Hopkins 959 Words | 2 Pages. Pauline Hopkins and paper, Theodore Dreiser: Treatment of Class Distinctions. Pauline Hopkins and Theodore Dreiser are two turn of the century authors who discuss class distinctions in their writings. . Hopkins is essay topics graders, hailed as “the most prolific black woman writer at the turn of the last century” (Autori, 2004, pg. 1) because of her best-known work, Contending Forces, while Dreiser is mla style, known for writing “the first great urban novel in America”, Sister Carrie (Riggio, 2000, pg. 1). Essay For Fifth Graders. Hopkins and Dreiser address issues such as racism and class distinction, and both authors realistically.
Black people , Bourgeoisie , Middle class 951 Words | 3 Pages. The Success Story of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. Professor GNDR 345-01 10 November 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf: A short journey through her many life accomplishments In my opinion . Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is a very strong woman and mla style, she should be looked up to by many women and children and english essay topics for fifth, men should also look up to her strength. While doing some research on Sirleaf I found out some very surprising information about her. I would have never known that Sirleaf was able to become president of Liberia being technically multiracial and because of that. Africa , Al Gore , History of Liberia 1227 Words | 3 Pages. Ellen is a 25 yrs old teacher who is in her 3rd year of research mla style paper, teaching, she is very involved in extra curricular activities, to both impress the . About Bribery And Corruption. principle and for her own enjoyment. Even though Ellen spends many hours away from research paper home, she feels justified in what to write essay the aspect her boy friend is a lawyer and research paper, spends many hours away from home as well. Ellen has a student in her class that seems to have a hard time with her math skills, and Ellen assists her after school, with tutoring her with math. Ellen at first.
Education , Ethics , Extracurricular activity 567 Words | 2 Pages. Individuality: Ellen Degeneres and Sexual Preference. special and use it to american history essay, their advantage and become successful. There are many famous people right now that are successful right now that only were able to . reach their full potential by embracing the research paper, very thing that made them unique and “different”. Ellen Degeneres revealed she was a lesbian, a rap group out to Brooklyn, NY by the name of english essay topics graders, “Flatbush Zombies” embraces their “weirdness” in rapping and sense of style and the good girl gone bad Rihanna expresses herself through body art and hairstyles. All. Coming out , Ellen DeGeneres , Good Girl Gone Bad 1347 Words | 3 Pages. Case of Ellen Carson 1) Discuss at least two intellectual property issues that might arise in the operation of the Web site. Two . intellectual property issues that I see and fall under the copyright law are the expression of research mla style paper, ideas and the word essays, the arrangement of element. Ellen will need to be very original in the creation of her Web site, as law protects many ideas and the arrangement of research, element.
Her Web site will need to essay topics for fifth, very different to other children’s sites out research paper, there. 2) Describe the ethical. Copyright , Intellectual property , Internet 415 Words | 2 Pages. Ellen DeGeneres, is an American stand-up comedian, television host, and actress. At one time, hundreds of companies and families as well as . Republicans were submitting briefs urging the 9 judges to allow gay people to marry. Ellen displayed her courage when she stood up for her beliefs by making her homosexuality public despite the essay, odds stacked against her if she did so. She even wrote a letter to the Supreme Court to appeal to them to support gay rights and marriage.
In her letter, she wrote. Coming out , Ellen DeGeneres , George W. Research. Bush 384 Words | 2 Pages. Poetry Explication of Spring Fall, by essay about and corruption, Gerard Manley Hopkins. The poem Spring and Fall by research paper, Gerard Manley Hopkins is a poem focusing on the brevity of american history introduction, life, and the grief that is felt in the hearts of all . Research Mla Style. mankind throughout our lives. It is also about the sadness felt by humans as we see ourselves aging, and ultimately about the fact that sin and american introduction essay, separation from research paper God bring sorrow and sadness that can never be fully explained by man. The poet is seemingly speaking to a young child, Margaret, who in her naivety and essay bribery, youth is only beginning to learn about aging. Duns Scotus , Gerard Manley Hopkins , Meter 901 Words | 3 Pages. Seymour English 112 E March 19, 2012 Ellen Foster Ellen Foster by Kaye Gibbons is a book about growing up. However it is research, . different than your typical growing up story because the main character Ellen has to “grow up” at such a young age. Many children in today’s society have to face the turing, same hardships as Ellen because families are beginning to fall apart more.
Another main theme and struggle that Ellen has to deal with in this book is the research, issue of to write in a introduction, racism. Ellen is white and research paper, her best friend, Starletta. African American , Ellen Foster , Family 850 Words | 2 Pages.