Chicago booth essays 2012
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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is chicago 2012, asking you to format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. Bach R Susan? This document will show you how to essays 2012 format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on thesis defense your essay, you have questions about chicago essays, what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by thesis defense, the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the chicago booth essays 2012, most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for competition, the MLA Handbook for 2012, Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed.
MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an biology a2 coursework plan MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of essays Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface.
Changing to mental essay competition MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface.
In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is chicago essays, too low. Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to thesis defense cartoons change the typeface:
Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the 2012, right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to in meaning memory t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the chicago booth essays, Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and biology “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to chicago 2012 the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an film essay informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the booth essays, other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is mental health essay competition, double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is chicago booth essays 2012, not boldface, or enlarged.
There is no extra space above or below the critical essay, title. Booth 2012? A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the english topics graders, page. Booth Essays? (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to defense cartoons include the booth essays, whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is biology a2 coursework, several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right).
Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is booth 2012, different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the bach connection essay image memory, author’s name and the page number. If the essays 2012, quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in about and corruption MLA style papers.” Cutting the essays 2012, filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Connection R Susan? Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the booth 2012, sentence comes after the critical film, close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into chicago booth essays 2012, our own sentence.
To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the bach connection essay memory r susan, absence of chicago booth essays 2012 a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and film where the essays 2012, quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to essay topics graders reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about booth 2012, citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the topics, technical details. We can save space, and chicago booth make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited.
This part can be tedious and a2 coursework tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. 2012? Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. About And Corruption? How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry.
Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to chicago essays answer, then let you push a button to thesis get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in chicago booth essays a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Bach Image In Meaning R Susan? Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of chicago booth different kinds, or that you cite works in health competition the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. Chicago Essays? (in my copy of Word, I select the text and bach essay memory r susan choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Booth 2012? (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.)
29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in essay image r susan 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the booth, Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for bach memory r susan, your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and essays avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on bach memory r susan “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers. 2012? That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the health essay, significant area.
Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in chicago essays the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and english essay for fifth that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information.
Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for chicago booth essays 2012, useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Health Competition? Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Booth? Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. A2 Coursework Plan? Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and chicago booth 2012 if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to biology plan write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the chicago essays, page number the text appears on within the authors works?
In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on english graders page 20 of the text by chicago, Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. Mental Competition? that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in booth essays middle school and I have to do this. I have never heard of film essay MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on chicago this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job!
Can you put what information is supposed to defense cartoons be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the 2012, question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to biology a2 coursework be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in chicago booth essays a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for english essay for fifth, different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful.
I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of chicago booth essays 2012 Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for bribery and corruption, Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper?
Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. Chicago Essays 2012? (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and biology plan a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the chicago essays 2012, title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in mental essay item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is chicago booth 2012, indented and my paragraphs are double indented and bach essay r susan the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision.
But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. Chicago Booth 2012? .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from film a page that I created following the booth essays, instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page. Essay? But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in booth essays a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor.
Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the essay, information on 2012 this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and english essay topics for fifth evaluates it according to booth his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and essay about ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in booth essays the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to connection be shorter, and divided up into chicago booth essays 2012, sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly.
Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the critical film, page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for essays, themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply. What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and a2 coursework plan “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in chicago booth MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure.
Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. Plan? But it’s best for you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of chicago any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. Biology? I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Chicago Essays 2012? Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an thesis A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about chicago 2012, MLA can someone help me.
thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written.
The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for defense, this useful information. As a freshman in essays highschool, my biology teacher asked for essay for fifth graders, me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to chicago essays 2012 type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and thesis the name of an author is not a good paper title, and booth 2012 I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you.
Very informative. Health Essay? It helped introduce my tired old mind to booth 2012 the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and mental essay competition prepare my wife for her English course. Chicago Booth Essays 2012? Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at thesis the top of the page. Booth Essays 2012? One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.
Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the plan, text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the chicago booth essays 2012, digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is essay, no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to chicago booth essays cite a photograph.
Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the cartoons, 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from chicago booth essays 2012 Lava Pit.” Photograph. Mental Health Essay Competition? The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the chicago 2012, citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to about bribery advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help.
There is essays 2012, no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. For Fifth Graders? It depends on 2012 what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to essay about bribery and corruption revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the chicago, only reason I am passing my online college class. Essay About Bribery And Corruption? Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
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The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) ‘Concerning little animals’ Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous ‘letter on the protozoa’, gives the essays, first detailed description of protists and bacteria living in a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of essay about bribery and corruption, a startlingly original experimental mind. Booth Essays. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of Leeuwenhoek's microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of biology; but work in the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoek's discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of less than 1 µm. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and behaviour of his little ‘animalcules', which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. Critical Essay. In these reflections on the scientific reach of chicago essays 2012, Leeuwenhoek's ideas and memory observations, I equate his questions with the preoccupations of chicago 2012, our genomic era: what is the nature of bach connection in meaning, Leeuwenhoek's animalcules, where do they come from, how do they relate to each other? Even with the powerful tools of modern biology, the answers are far from resolved—these questions still challenge our understanding of microbial evolution. This commentary was written to chicago booth essays celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society . My work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued in order to gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a craving after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than most other men. Leeuwenhoek, Letter of biology a2 coursework, 12 June 1716. Leeuwenhoek is universally acknowledged as the father of chicago 2012, microbiology.
He discovered both protists and english bacteria . More than being the first to see this unimagined world of ‘animalcules', he was the first even to think of looking—certainly, the first with the chicago booth 2012, power to see. Using his own deceptively simple, single-lensed microscopes, he did not merely observe, but conducted ingenious experiments, exploring and manipulating his microscopic universe with a curiosity that belied his lack of a map or bearings. Leeuwenhoek (figure 1) was a pioneer, a scientist of the highest calibre, yet his reputation suffered at the hands of cartoons, those who envied his fame or scorned his unschooled origins, as well as through his own mistrustful secrecy of his methods, which opened a world that others could not comprehend. The verification of this new world by the natural philosophers of the nascent Royal Society laid out the ground rules that still delineate science today, but the freshness and wonder, the sheer thrill of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries, transmit directly down the centuries to biologists today.
Microbiologists and phylogeneticists continue to argue about the nature of Leeuwenhoek's little animals, if in more elaborate terms. Chicago Booth 2012. Only now are we beginning to find answers—and surprisingly uncertain answers—to the questions that drove Leeuwenhoek: where did this multitude of essay for fifth, tiny ‘animals' come from, why such variety in size and chicago behaviour; how to distinguish and classify them? Portrait of Leeuwenhoek by thesis defense Jan Verkolje, 1686, at age 54. Copyright © The Royal Society. Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper  was not his first contribution to chicago booth 2012 Philosophical Transactions , nor was it his first mention of thesis defense cartoons, little animals living in water. The paper was translated (‘English'd’) from low Dutch, and excerpted to half its original length by the redoubtable Henry Oldenburg, first Secretary of the Royal Society and founding editor of Philosophical Transactions . Oldenburg corresponded so widely across Europe that he was imprisoned in the Tower for suspected espionage in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was renamed New York). Oldenburg later adopted a pseudonym, the anagram ‘Grubendol’, to avert suspicion (it would arouse mine).
Among his regular Dutch correspondents were the surgeon Regnerus de Graaf and statesman Constantijn Huygens, father of famed astronomer Christiaan Huygens, both of whom wrote epistles to chicago booth essays 2012 Oldenburg introducing ‘the exceedingly curious and essay about bribery and corruption industrious' Leeuwenhoek, Huygens adding the helpful note ‘or Leawenhook, according to your orthographie’ . Booth Essays 2012. That was in critical film essay 1673; by 1677, Leeuwenhoek was well known to the Royal Society, but by no means were his reports accepted on trust. Oldenburg published several of Leeuwenhoek's letters in 1673 and 1674, which dealt with interesting but uncontentious matters, such as the chicago, structure of the bee sting. Film. Equivalent microscopic structures of objects visible to the naked eye had been illuminated by Robert Hooke in his Micrographia nearly a decade earlier; indeed, it is to booth Hooke that we owe the mental health competition, word ‘cell’, which he used to denote the boxy spaces (reminiscent of the small rooms in a monastery) that make up the structure of cork . From some of Leeuwenhoek's slightly waspish remarks in his early letters, he had almost certainly seen a copy of Micrographia on his visit to London in 1667 or 1668, when the book was practically a fashion accessory (‘the most ingenious book I read in all my life’, wrote Pepys, who stayed up all night with it; Pepys reputedly stayed up all night often, though rarely with a book).
Leeuwenhoek first courted controversy in essays a letter of September 1674. Describing a nearby lake, Berkelse Mere, he noted that its water was very clear in winter ‘but at the beginning or middle of summer it becomes whitish, and there are then little green clouds floating in it’ . These clouds contained wispy ‘green streaks, spirally wound serpent-wise, and orderly arranged’—the beautiful green alga Spirogyra . Then came Leeuwenhoek's first mention of little animals: ‘among these streaks there were besides very many little animalcules … And the motion of most of these animalcules in bach connection r susan the water was so swift, and so various upwards, downwards and chicago 2012 round about that ‘twas wonderful to see: and I judged that some of these little creatures were above a thousand times smaller than the critical film, smallest ones I have ever yet seen upon the rind of cheese’ (by which he meant mites) . Until this point, Oldenburg had published almost all of booth essays, Leeuwenhoek's letters (including this one) within a few months of receipt. Now, he drew pause. A2 Coursework. Of the next 12 letters sent by Leeuwenhoek, only three were published, and none that touched on animalcules. Booth Essays. Oldenburg had every reason to be suspicious; as Leeuwenhoek wrote to Hooke a few years later ‘I suffer many contradictions and oft-times hear it said that I do but tell fairy tales about the defense cartoons, little animals' . This invisible world was teeming with as much varied life as a rainforest or a coral reef, and booth 2012 yet could be seen by essay none but Leeuwenhoek. No wonder Oldenburg and his colleagues had doubts. Chicago Essays. Set against about bribery this background, Leeuwenhoek wrote his eighteenth letter to the Royal Society, dated October 1676, the essays 2012, celebrated ‘letter on the protozoa’, which Oldenburg excerpted, translated and published as the 1677 paper.
It opens with a bang: ‘In 1675 I discovered living creatures in Rain water which had stood but few days in a new earthen pot, glased blew [i.e. painted blue] within. This invited me to view this water with great attention, especially those little animals appearing to me ten thousand times less than those represented by Mons. Swamerdam and called by him Water fleas or Water-lice , which may be perceived in the water with the naked eye’ . Clifford Dobell, in his delightful biography published in 1932 (300 years after Leeuwenhoek's birth), notes that Oldenburg's translation is defense, good but not perfect . That's not surprising. While Oldenburg knew the language, he had no knowledge of the booth 2012, organisms themselves. In contrast, Dobell was a distinguished microbiologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and had the great benefit of hindsight. Essay For Fifth Graders. His biography was a labour of booth, love, written over 25 years, frequently in the middle of the night, while carrying out a2 coursework his own research on intestinal protozoa and other protists.
Dobell taught himself Dutch and translated Leeuwenhoek's letters painstakingly—written, as they were, in a colloquial Dutch no longer in use, and in the beautiful but scarcely legible hand of a copyist (figure 2). Dobell revelled in the precise beauty of Leeuwenhoek's descriptions of Euglena , Vorticella and many other protists and bacteria, which leapt off the page, immediately recognizable to this expert kindred spirit. Chicago Essays 2012. Some 250 years earlier, Oldenburg had none of these advantages in contemplating Leeuwenhoek's letters—his translation is an extraordinary monument to the open-minded scepticism of science. First and last pages of Leeuwenhoek's 1676 letter to Oldenburg, in the hand of a copyist. Copyright © The Royal Society. I sketch this background because the paper itself is unusual even in Leeuwenhoek's oeuvre, taking the form of a diary.
On a cursory reading, it seems almost embarrassingly naive to thesis defense cartoons the modern ear—the earthen pot ‘glased blew within’ in the first sentence is a good example (but see  for a discussion of chicago booth essays, Dutch prose style in biology a2 coursework the seventeenth century). We learn that on ‘the 17th of this month of June it rained very hard; and I catched some of that rain water in a new Porcelain dish, which had never been used before, but found no living creatures at chicago 2012, all in it’ . On it goes, with precise but apparently irrelevant details. ‘In the open Court of my house I have a well, which is about 15 foot deep, before one comes to the water. It is encompassed with high walls, so that the essay about bribery, Sun, though in Cancer, yet can hardly shine much upon it. This water comes out of the ground, which is chicago booth essays, sandy, with such a power, that when I have laboured to empty the well, I could not so do it but there remained ever a foots depth of water in critical it. This water is in Summer time so cold, that you cannot possibly endure your hand in it for any reasonable time’ . Booth. And my favourite: ‘July 27 1676. Bach Connection Image R Susan. I went to the sea-side, at Schlevelingen, the wind coming from the Sea with a very warm Sun-shine; and essays 2012 viewing some of the Sea-water very attentively, I discovered divers living animals therein. I gave to a man, that went into the Sea to wash himself, a new glass-bottle, bought on purpose for that end, intreating him, that being on the Sea, he would first wash it well twice, or thrice, and then fill it full of the Sea-water; which desire of mental health competition, mine having been complied with, I tyed the bottle close with a clean bladder’ .
On a first reading, then, Leeuwenhoek might come across as a simpleton; and he has too often been dismissed as such. One can only chicago, smile at the image of Leeuwenhoek on the beach, pressing his pre-prepared bottles onto english essay topics graders strangers. But which details are important? How should he have charted this abundant new world? We need to appreciate several points. This letter was intended to defend his discoveries—‘merely so as to make my observations more credible in chicago booth essays England and about bribery elsewhere’ . Leeuwenhoek typically wrote with publication in mind (and later published his own works privately whenever the Royal Society declined to do so), but here he preferred to clarify exactly what he had done, doubtless anticipating that Oldenburg would eliminate superfluous details.
In this, he would defer to the judgement of educated men, being careful, as was the custom of the times, to denigrate his own learning. But characteristically, he would defer only on his own terms, and his self-portrait is in fact remarkably objective. ‘I have oft-times been besought, by booth divers gentlemen, to set down on paper what I have beheld through my newly invented Microscopia : but I have generally declined; first, because I have no style, or pen, wherewith to express my thoughts properly; second, because I have not been brought up to languages or arts, but only to english topics for fifth graders business; and in the third place, because I do not gladly suffer contradiction or censure from chicago booth others' . All those who have raged at the obtuse comments of Reviewer 3 will sympathize with this last point; but like Leeuwenhoek, suffer it we do. In his letter of thesis, 1676, then, Leeuwenhoek set out a detailed context for his observations. Dobell notes that ‘Leeuwenhoek was manifestly a man of great and singular candour, honesty and sincerity. He was religiously plain and straightforward in all he did, and therefore sometimes almost immodestly frank in describing his observations.
It never occurred to him that Truth could appear indecent’ . On a closer reading, the colloquial manner of Leeuwenhoek's letter conceals the workings of his precise and methodical mind. Leeuwenhoek was acutely aware of contamination; he replenished evaporated water with snow-water, the purest then available, making every effort not to introduce little animals from any other source. He sampled water from many different sources—his well, the sea, rain water, drain pipes, lakes—always taking care to clean his receptacles. In a later letter, he mentions that he even examined water that had been distilled or boiled . Chicago 2012. In each case, he describes different populations of animalcules over time. Time is critical. Frequently, he observes nothing for a week, checking each day, before reporting a profusion of essay bribery, little animals of diverse types, replicating themselves over several days before dying back again. The time, dates, sources, weather, all these were important variables for Leeuwenhoek, which he charts carefully.
He was resolutely opposed to the idea of spontaneous generation, nearly 200 years before Pasteur finally resolved the matter with his swan-necked flasks. Leeuwenhoek later described the procreation of cells via copulation or schism to release daughter cells in arresting detail. Essays. But his early disbelief of spontaneous generation is implicit in the comparisons of critical film essay, his 1677 paper, in his care to avoid contamination, and his estimation of booth 2012, rates of growth. Leeuwenhoek also reports experiments, adding peppercorns to water, both crushed and topics graders uncrushed (as well as ginger, cloves, nutmeg and vinegar, omitted from chicago booth essays 2012 Oldenburg's excerpts for essay about bribery and corruption Philosophical Transactions ). In these infusions, Leeuwenhoek observed an astonishing proliferation of tiny animals ‘incredibly small; nay, so small, in essays 2012 my sight, that I judged that even if 100 of essay image memory, these very wee animals lay stretched out one against another, they could not reach the length of a grain of course sand; and if this be true, then ten hundred thousand of these living creatures could scarce equal the bulk of a course grain of sand’ . Again, the chicago essays, colloquial language deceives. Essay Image Memory. In a clarification sent to Constantijn Huygens and chicago booth essays 2012 Hooke, Leeuwenhoek writes ‘Let's assume that such a sand-grain is so big, that 80 of english topics, them, lying one against the other, would make up the length of one inch’ . He goes on to calculate the number of animalcules in a cubic inch; for our purposes here, his calculation puts the length of his ‘very wee animals' at less than 3 µm. Bacteria. Essays. (He later describes bacterial motility unequivocally ). He also notes that he deliberately underestimates the number of bacteria in a drop of water—‘for the reason that the plan, number of animalcules in so small a quantity of water would else be so big, that ‘twould not be credited: and when I stated in chicago essays my letter of 9th October 1676, that there were upwards of 1 000 000 living creatures in one drop of pepper-water, I might with truth have put the number at eight times as many’ .
An innocent, early example of spinning data to sell to a journal? But the bach connection essay image in meaning memory, natural philosophers of the Royal Society, in pioneering the methods we still use in science today, were not easily spun. Leeuwenhoek's letter had been read aloud over several sessions and chicago booth attracted great interest, verging on consternation. Oldenburg wrote to Leeuwenhoek, asking him to ‘acquaint us with his method of observing, that others may confirm such Observations as these’, and to provide drawings . Leeuwenhoek declined, throughout his life, to give any description of his microscopical methods (‘for reasons best known to essay himself’, said Hooke; though science has hardly resolved the essays 2012, issue of health competition, intellectual property since then). But Leeuwenhoek did now employ a draughtsman, whose regular gasps of astonishment when shown various little animals punctuate Leeuwenhoek's later letters (‘Oh, that one could ever depict so wonderful a motion!’).
Some of these limner's drawings are shown in figure 3. Leeuwenhoek also sent eight testimonies from gentlemen of repute—a Lutheran minister, a notary and a barrister, among others. It is striking to the modern reader that none of these gentlemen were natural philosophers acquainted with the methods of science; but according to booth essays 2012 the historian Steven Shapin, it was the a2 coursework plan, bond of the chicago booth essays, gentleman that counted. The practice of signed testimonies from gentlemen was common in the seventeenth century; the fact that Leeuwenhoek called upon eight such testimonies attests to the unprecedented character of essay bribery and corruption, his findings, but also perhaps to his lower social standing . ( a ) Rotifers, hydra and chicago essays vorticellids associated with a duckweed root, from health a Delft canal. From Leeuwenhoek . Booth Essays. ( b ) Bacteria from Leeuwenhoek's mouth; the dotted line portrays movement.
From Leeuwenhoek . Defense. Copyright © The Royal Society. No doubt all this was helpful, but it was countered by letters from others such as Christiaan Huygens (son of chicago, Constanijn), then in Paris, who at bach connection memory, that time remained sceptical, as was his wont: ‘I should greatly like to know how much credence our Mr Leeuwenhoek's observations obtain among you. Chicago Booth. He resolves everything into little globules; but for my part, after vainly trying to see some of the things which he sees, I much misdoubt me whether they be not illusions of essay for fifth, his sight’ . Chicago Essays 2012. The Royal Society tasked Nehemiah Grew, the botanist, to essay about bribery and corruption reproduce Leeuwenhoek's work, but Grew failed; so in 1677, on succeeding Grew as Secretary, Hooke himself turned his mind back to microscopy. Hooke too initially failed, but on chicago 2012, his third attempt to mental health essay competition reproduce Leeuwenhoek's findings with pepper-water (and other infusions), Hooke did succeed in seeing the animalcules—‘some of these so exceeding small that millions of millions might be contained in one drop of water’  (actually far less precise than Leeuwenhoek). Booth 2012. He went on to write ‘It seems very wonderful that there should be such an about bribery infinite number of animalls in soe imperceptible quantity of matter. That these animalls should be soe perfectly shaped and indeed with such curious organs of motion as to be able to move nimbly, to turne, stay, accelerate and chicago essays 2012 retard their progresse at pleasure. And it was not less surprising to find that these were gygantick monsters [protozoa] in comparison of a lesser sort which almost filled the water [bacteria]’ . Unlike Leeuwenhoek, Hooke gave precise details of his microscopical methods, and demonstrated them before the gathered fellows, including Sir Christopher Wren, later publishing both his methods and critical film observations in Microscopium (1678) .
He even taught himself Dutch, so that he could read the letters of the ‘ingenious Mr Leeuwenhoek’. As noted by the microscopist Brian J. Ford  and microbiologist Howard Gest , Hooke was a central and chicago booth essays too-often overlooked figure in the history of microbiology: his earlier book Micrographia (1665) most likely inspired Leeuwenhoek to begin his own microscopical studies. Critical Film. Without Hooke's support and verification—a task beyond several of the best microscopists of the age, including Grew—Leeuwenhoek might easily have been dismissed as a charlatan. Instead, through Hooke's impressive demonstrations, and booth essays 2012 with the cartoons, direct support of the patron of the Royal Society, King Charles II, Leeuwenhoek was elected a Fellow in 1680. Essays. Others had independently changed their view of cartoons, Leeuwenhoek in the interim, but that did little to alter the chicago booth essays, course of events.
Christiaan Huygens, for example, overcame his early scepticism after visiting Leeuwenhoek and seeing his animalcules. He went on to grind his own lenses, observing various protists himself . Indeed, Huygens made a number of pioneering observations, but these remained in manuscript and were unpublished until the turn of the twentieth century . Ironically, Hooke's admirable comments on about bribery, the construction of chicago, microscopes might have undermined Leeuwenhoek's later reputation. Hooke made various types of microscope. He much preferred using larger instruments with two lenses, but in bach essay memory r susan the Preface to Micrographia  he also described how to make ‘simple’ microscopes with a single lens—what became known as a Leeuwenhoek microscope . The lens is booth, produced by film melting Venice glass into thin threads, containing little globules, which are then ground and chicago booth 2012 polished, and mounted against a needle hole pricked through a thin plate of brass (figure 4). ‘If … an biology a2 coursework plan Object, plac'd very near, be look'd at chicago booth essays 2012, through it, it will both magnifie and make some objects more distinct than any of the great Microscopes. But because these, though exceeding easily made, are yet very troublesome to mental health essay competition be us'd, because of their smallness, and the nearness of the Object; therefore to prevent both of booth, these, and yet have only two refractions, I provided me a Tube of Brass' . In 1678, Hooke reiterated his dislike of single-lens microscopes: ‘I have found the use of them offensive to my eye, and to english essay graders have much strained the sight, which was the booth essays, reason why I omitted to make use of them, though in essay about truth they make the object appear much more clear and distinct, and booth 2012 magnifie as much as the double Microscopes: nay to those whose eyes can well endure it, ‘tis possible with a single Microscope to make discoveries much better than with a double one, because the colours which do much disturb the clear vision in double Microscopes is clearly avoided and bribery prevented with the chicago, single’ . ( a ) Replica of a single-lens microscope by Leeuwenhoek (Image by critical film Jeroen Rouwkema. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons). ( b,d ) Photomicrographs taken using simple single-lens microscopes including one of Leeuwenhoek's originals in Utrecht, by Brian Ford (Copyright © Brian J. Chicago 2012. Ford). ( b ) An air-dried smear of Ford's own blood through the original van Leeuwenhoek microscope at mental health competition, Utrecht, showing red blood cells and a granulocyte with its lobed nucleus (upper right; about 2 µm in diameter). ( c ) Spiral bacteria ( Spirillum volutans ) imaged through a replica microscope with a lens ground from spinel; each bacterial cell is about 20 µm in length. ( d ) The intestinal protist parasite Giardia intestinalis imaged through a replica soda-glass produced by Brian Ford [28,29].
It seems that Hooke's aversion to booth simple single-lens microscopes passed on down the generations, but not his appreciation of their merits. Critical. The compound microscope, with its refractive aberrations, became the chicago, tool of choice, and film essay Leeuwenhoek's microscopes were quietly forgotten, their oblivion hastened by chicago 2012 Leeuwenhoek's own secrecy, notwithstanding his gift of 13 microscopes, with corresponding specimens, to the Royal Society on his death in 1723 at the age of health essay competition, 90. Leeuwenhoek had actively discouraged teaching his methods, for reasons that are troubling today in an age when education is open to all. While lens grinding was linked with artisans rather than with gentlemen, hence might have been discouraged on that basis alone, Leeuwenhoek, as always, spoke plainly. In a letter to Leibnitz, he wrote ‘To train young people to grind lenses, and to found a sort of school for this purpose, I can't see there'd be much use: because many students at Leyden have already been fired by my discoveries and my lens grinding … But what's come of it? Nothing, as far as I know: because most students go there to make money out of science, or to chicago 2012 get a reputation in the learned world. But in lens grinding, and discovering things hidden from our sight, these count for nought. A2 Coursework Plan. And I'm satisfied too that not one man in a thousand is booth, capable of such study, because it needs much time, and spending much money; and you must always keep on thinking about these things, if you are to get any results.
And over and above all, most men are not curious to know: nay, some even make no bones about saying: What does it matter whether we know this or not?’ . Most scientists, I imagine, would see themselves as that one man in a thousand; it is our task today to persuade others that it does indeed matter, not for any immediate benefit, but for the sake of curiosity and its unknowable contribution to essay and corruption the sum of chicago booth 2012, human knowledge and mental health essay competition wellbeing. The dominant use of compound microscopes over the following centuries meant that the brief blaze of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries was nearly extinguished until the great compound microscope makers of the early-nineteenth century, notably Joseph Bancks (who also produced some high-powered single-lens microscopes, used by Robert Brown in his discovery of Brownian motion and cytoplasmic streaming, and by chicago booth essays Darwin aboard the Beagle). Defense. In the interim, microscopy had never recaptured Leeuwenhoek's early glory, its credibility being undermined by reports of homunculi crouching in semen and other figments of the imagination. The concept of preformation was called into serious question from the 1740s, beginning with Abraham Trembley's work on chicago essays, the regeneration of critical, freshwater polyps . In the 1750s, Linnaeus scarcely troubled himself with the chicago 2012, classification of microbes; he dumped the whole lot into the phylum Vermes (‘worms'), genus Chaos (formless). The damaging accusation of seeing things that were not there, combined with Linnaeus's insinuated absence of critical essay, structure, meant that few believed Leeuwenhoek could have seen cells as small as bacteria; even the empathetic Dobell struggled to booth essays conceive what magical form of lighting Leeuwenhoek must have employed to view his specimens.
Only the galvanizing work of Brian J. Thesis Defense. Ford, who rediscovered some of 2012, Leeuwenhoek's samples in the library of the Royal Society in 1981, resurrected the glory of the single-lens microscope . Bach Connection Essay In Meaning R Susan. Ford photographed Leeuwenhoek's original specimens using one of his surviving microscopes in Utrecht, and demonstrated a remarkable resolution of booth essays, less than 1 µm  (figure 4). That left little scope for connection essay in meaning r susan disbelief: plainly, Leeuwenhoek really did see much of what he claimed. So what is Leeuwenhoek's legacy? Most of his discoveries were forgotten, and only rediscovered in the nineteenth century, 150 years later, being then interpreted in the context of the newly developing cell theory, with little reference back to Leeuwenhoek himself. In this regard Leeuwenhoek's legacy is chicago essays, analogous to that of Gregor Mendel, likewise rediscovered at a time when others were exploring similar ideas. Leeuwenhoek's work, of course, ranged far beyond microbiology.
In all, he sent around 200 letters to english the Royal Society, 112 of which were published, touching on chicago booth 2012, many aspects of biology and even mineralogy. He remains the most highly published author in the journal. Essay For Fifth. He is considered to be the chicago booth essays, founder of many fields, but none of them more important than his astonishing discoveries in microbiology, and none conveyed with such delight. Leeuwenhoek was captivated by his animalcules. ‘Among all the marvels that I have discovered in nature’, he wrote, ‘these are the most marvellous of health essay, all’ . His exhilaration in discovery, combined with a fearless and surefooted interpretation of unknown vistas, is for me Leeuwenhoek's true legacy. Chicago Booth Essays. It is a spirit effervescent in competition many later pioneers of microbiology, indeed in science more generally. And many of the chicago essays, problems that beset Leeuwenhoek troubled them too. Take the ultrastructure of cells, especially protists. Leeuwenhoek could clearly see ‘little feet’ (cilia) and defense also the budding offspring of cells, but he saw much more than that. I'm struck by booth 2012 this passage in the 1677 paper, describing an ‘egg-shaped’ animalcule (which Dobell tentatively identified as the ciliate Colpidium colpoda ): ‘Their body did consist, within, of 10, 12, or 14 globuls, which lay separate from each other. When I put these animalcula in a dry place, they then changed their body into a perfect round, and often burst asunder, the globuls, together with some aqueous particles, spred themselves every where about, without my being able to connection essay image r susan discern any other remains.
These globuls, which in the bursting of these creatures did flow asunder here and there, were about the bigness of the first very small creatures [bacteria]. And though as yet I could not discern any small feet in them, yet me thought, they must needs be furnished with very many … ’ . While the ‘globuls' in C. colpoda were probably mostly food vacuoles, as well as the macronucleus, Leeuwenhoek's comparison with bacteria leaves open the tantalizing possibility that he had even seen organelles such as mitochondria, which with a diameter of 0.5–1 µm would have pushed his microscopical resolution to chicago booth essays the limits. Some 250 years later, this equivalence between intracellular ‘globuls' and english essay topics free-living bacteria was pursued by the early-twentieth century pioneers of endosymbiotic theory, notably the booth essays, Russian Konstantin Mereschkowski, Frenchman Paul Portier and American Ivan Wallin, the mental health essay, latter pair independently going so far as to argue that mitochondria could be cultivated . The idea of ‘symbiogenesis' was famously ridiculed by the American cell biologist E.B. Booth Essays 2012. Wilson, who summed up the prevailing attitude: ‘To many, no doubt, such speculations may appear too fantastic for present mention in polite biological society; nevertheless, it is within the range of possibility that they may some day call for serious consideration’ . Another half-century was to elapse before Lynn Margulis and others demonstrated that mitochondria and chloroplasts do indeed derive from bacterial endosymbionts ; and even then, not without a fight. I doubt that the idea of endosymbiosis would have shocked Leeuwenhoek; nor would he have been much surprised by the contemptuous disbelief of many biologists over decades. Another unifying theory came from biochemistry, and fittingly drew inspiration from Leeuwenhoek's hometown of Delft (described by the Earl of Leicester, once Governor-General of the Netherlands, as ‘another London almost for beauty and fairness'). The pioneer of comparative biochemistry, Albert Kluyver, was Professor of Microbiology in the Technical University of Delft from 1922 until his death in 1956. More than anyone else, Kluyver appreciated that biochemistry unified life .
He realized that different types of respiration (he cites sulfate reduction, denitrification and thesis defense methanogenesis) are fundamentally equivalent, all involving the 2012, transfer of electrons from a donor to an acceptor. He appreciated that all forms of respiration and essay topics for fifth graders fermentation are united in that they all drive growth by means of phosphorylation. Such parallels made the startling differences between cells explicable, a discovery he cherished as ‘highly edifying to the scientific mind’ . He expressed this unity in the awkward phrase ‘From elephant to butyric acid bacterium—it is all the same’, later paraphrased, more memorably but without attribution, by Francois Jacob and booth essays 2012 Jacques Monod as ‘that old axiom ‘what is true for bacteria is connection essay r susan, also true for elephants’’. Kluyver, in a seminal passage, recognized that the essays 2012, fundamental unity of biochemistry ‘opens the way for connection in meaning r susan a better appreciation of evolutionary developments which have taken place in the microbial world, since the chicago booth, antithesis between the aerobic and anaerobic mode of life has been largely removed’ . The unity of biochemistry, then, gave the defense, first insights into the evolution of the astonishing variety of ‘little animals', which until then had remained a mystery, their provenance as wholly unknown as in Leeuwenhoek's time. Kluyver's student Cornelis van Niel, together with Roger Stanier, made some headway in chicago essays the 1940s before despairing of the endeavour altogether.
By the time they published their famous essay ‘The concept of a bacterium’ in 1961 they no longer cared to bach connection image memory r susan defend their own earlier taxonomic systems ; they sought only to distinguish bacteria (prokaryotic cells, lacking a nucleus) from essays 2012 larger eukaryotic protists, all of which have a nucleus. In this, they were remarkably perspicacious, commenting: ‘The differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are not expressed in any gross features of cellular function; they reside rather in differences with respect to the detailed organization of the cellular machinery ’ . They cite the examples of respiration and health essay photosynthesis, found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: ‘But in the prokaryotic cell, these metabolic unit processes are performed by an apparatus which always shows a much smaller degree of specific organization. In fact, one can say that no unit of structure smaller than the cell in its entirety is recognizable as the site of either metabolic unit process ' . This is a beautiful insight, worthy of Leeuwenhoek himself. In eukaryotes, respiration and booth essays 2012 photosynthesis are conducted in mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively, and continue perfectly well in isolation from the rest of the cell, as all the soluble enzymes needed are constrained within the bioenergetic membranes of the organelle. In bacteria, by contrast, the enzymes required are split between the cell membrane (whether invaginated or otherwise) and the cytosol, making the bacterium as a whole the indivisible functional unit. This distinction applies as much to cyanobacteria (classed as algae, not bacteria, by Ernst Haeckel and topics for fifth graders later systematists) as to other bacteria. Stanier and van Niel therefore argued that bacteria are a single (monophyletic) group, all similar in their basic plan, but insisted that any further attempts to chicago booth define phylogeny were hopeless. The timing was unfortunate.
Francis Crick had already advocated the use of molecular sequences as a wonderfully sensitive phylogenetic signal, writing in 1958: ‘Biologists should realize that before long we shall have a subject which might be called ‘protein taxonomy’—the study of amino acid sequences of proteins of an organism and the comparison of them between species. It can be argued that these sequences are the most delicate expression possible of the thesis cartoons, phenotype of an organism and that vast amounts of evolutionary information may be hidden away within them’ . Essays. Soon afterwards, Zuckerkandl Pauling  formalized the argument with sequence data; and a mere two decades later, Carl Woese published his first tree of life . Biology A2 Coursework. Woese  was soon dismissing Stanier and van Niel as epitomising the dark ages of microbiology, when microbiologists had given up any prospect of a true phylogeny. Woese's tree was based on ribosomal RNA. Essays. He showed that prokaryotes are not monophyletic at all, but subdivide into two great domains, the bacteria and film archaea. Chicago Booth. Later work, which used other methods to ‘root’ the tree , portrayed the eukaryotes as a ‘sister group’ to the archaea . For the first time, it seemed possible to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between Leeuwenhoek's animalcules in health essay an evolutionary tree of life. Woese and chicago booth 2012 his co-workers went so far as to argue that the term prokaryote was obsolete, being an invalid negative definition (i.e. prokaryotes are defined by film essay the absence of a nucleus; ).
The three domains tree is booth, still the standard text book view. Even so, for all its revolutionary appeal, Woese's tree is the apotheosis of essay competition, a reductionist molecular view of evolution, based on 2012, constructing trees from a single gene. It is ironic that, later in biology life, Woese called for a more holistic biology, while refusing to booth essays 2012 countenance the limitations of his single-gene tree . More recent work, based on whole genome sequences, has undermined Woese's narrow viewpoint. While the sisterhood of archaea and eukaryotes is upheld for a core of informational genes—genes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translation—it is not at essay bribery, all true for most other genes in chicago essays 2012 eukaryotes, which are more closely related to bacteria than archaea. Bach Essay Memory R Susan. Woese's iconic tree is therefore profoundly misleading, and should be seen strictly as a tree of one gene only: it is not a tree of life. We cannot infer what a cell might have looked like, or how it might have lived in the past, on chicago booth, the basis of its ribosomal genotype. Eukaryotes are now plainly seen to be genomic chimeras, apparently formed in a singular endosymbiosis between an archaeal host cell and a bacterium around 1.5 billion years ago . This chimerism cannot be depicted on a normal branching phylogenetic tree, because endosymbiosis involves fusion of english topics graders, branches, not bifurcation, producing instead a striking composite tree, depicted beautifully (and presciently, as this is still accurate) by chicago booth essays 2012 Bill Martin in 1998  (figure 5). Bill Martin and essay and corruption I have since argued that the booth, singular endosymbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes, which gave rise to mitochondria, increased the energy available per bach image memory, gene in essays eukaryotic cells by a breath-taking three to mental health five orders of magnitude .
That overcame the pervasive energetic constraints faced by bacteria, enabling a massive expansion in cell volume and genome size, and permitting the chicago essays, evolution of many eukaryotic traits from the a2 coursework, nucleus to sex and phagocytosis (all of which were first reported by Leeuwenhoek himself). This view accords nicely with Stanier and van Niel's conception of prokaryotes as the indivisible functional unit; mitochondria are functional energetic units, pared down bacteria that can be replicated to generate more power. It might be that eukaryotes had to evolve by way of an chicago booth essays 2012 endosymbiosis, for these bioenergetic reasons. A tree of life drawn by Bill Martin in 1998, reflecting whole genomes. The tree shows the chimeric origin of bach connection essay image in meaning memory, eukaryotes, in which an archaeal host cell acquired bacterial endosymbionts that evolved into mitochondria; and essays the later acquisition of chloroplasts in Plantae . Reproduced with permission from . Copyright 1999 © John Wiley Sons, Inc. Even in the absence of endosymbiosis, the idea of a true phylogenetic tree of life is undermined by the prevalence of lateral gene transfer in mental health essay both bacteria and archaea. Informational genes, including ribosomal RNA, are generally inherited vertically, giving a robust phylogenetic signal, but such genes account for barely 1% of a bacterial genome, and chicago booth essays 2012 much of the rest is english essay, passed around between cells by lateral gene transfer, confounding deep phylogenetic signals.
A potentially revolutionary new study shows that the major archaeal groups originated with the lateral acquisition of bacterial genes . Ironically, the unity of booth, biochemistry—Kluyver's edifying guide to evolution—is the root problem: the universality of the genetic code, intermediary metabolism and bach essay image memory r susan energy conservation (e.g. the shared mechanism of respiration) means that genes are an exchangeable currency, and facilitate adaptation to the endless variety of external conditions. Again, the link between the ribosomal genotype of a prokaryotic cell and its phenotype—the way it makes a living—is forever changing. Ford Doolittle notes that pervasive genetic chimerism means that ‘no hierarchical universal classification can be taken as natural’ ; the universal tree of life is a human foible and not a true representation of the real world. As Doolittle observes, ‘Biologists might rejoice in and explore, rather than regret or attempt to dismiss, the creative evolutionary role of lateral gene transfer’ . The tree of life promises a hierarchical order, and chicago booth essays 2012 takes authority from Darwin himself, but in microbes at plan, least it is not sustained by the very genetic sequences that made such phylogeny possible. ‘Early evolution without a tree of life’  might seem an alarming vista to many, but Leeuwenhoek would surely have felt at home. He was happiest without a compass.
Perhaps that, more than anything else, is the lesson we still need to learn from 2012 Leeuwenhoek today. There is bach essay image memory r susan, a danger of complacency in biology, a feeling that the immense computational power of the 2012, modern age will ultimately resolve the questions of biology, and medical research more broadly. But pathophysiology stems from physiology, and physiology is a product of cartoons, evolution, largely at the level of cells. The eukaryotic cell seems to essays have arisen in a singular endosymbiosis between prokaryotes, and eukaryotes share a large number of basic traits, few of which are known in anything like the same form in bacteria or archaea. Critical Essay. We know of no surviving evolutionary intermediates between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Chicago Booth. We know almost nothing about which factors drove the evolution of many basal eukaryotic traits, from the nucleus to meiosis and sex, to cell death—traits first observed by Leeuwenhoek.
Why did meiosis and sex arise from lateral gene transfer in bacteria? Why did the connection image in meaning, nucleus evolve in eukaryotes but not in chicago booth essays 2012 bacteria or archaea? What prevents bacteria from engulfing other cells by phagocytosis? There is no agreement on the answers to these questions, nor more broadly to essay a question that might easily have been asked by 2012 Leeuwenhoek himself—why is life the way it is? Some of essay in meaning memory r susan, us have argued that eukaryotic evolution is explicable in booth terms of the detailed mechanisms of energy conservation, with an allied requirement for endosymbiosis leading to conflict and mental health essay coadaptation between endosymbionts and their host cells . But these arguments still lack rigorous proof, as do all alternative hypotheses.
In the meantime, we have at best an unreliable map of the land that enchanted Leeuwenhoek. We should rejoice and booth essays explore. Nick Lane is a Reader in Evolutionary Biochemistry in essay bribery and corruption the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment at University College London. His research is on the role of bioenergetics in the origin of essays 2012, life and the early evolution of cells, focusing on the importance of endosymbiosis and cellular structure in determining the course of essay image memory, evolution. Booth. Nick was awarded the inaugural UCL Provost's Venture Research Fellowship in 2009, the BMC Research Award for Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics and Evolution in 2011, and the Biochemical Society Award for about bribery 2015.
He leads the booth essays 2012, UCL Research Frontiers Origins of connection essay in meaning r susan, Life programme and was a founding member of the UCL Consortium for Mitochondrial Research. He has published some 70 research papers and articles, co-edited two volumes and written four critically acclaimed books on evolutionary biochemistry, which have been translated into 20 languages. His book Life Ascending won the 2010 Royal Society Prize for Science Books.
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Chicago Booth Essays 2012
15 Things You Should Know About The Death of Marat. A strangely hypnotic portrait, Jacques-Louis David's The Death of Marat has emerged as one of the most famous images of the blood-soaked French Revolution. The history behind this morbid masterpiece is even richer than its color palette. 1. The Death of Marat depicts a gruesome political murder . Booth Essays! Outspoken journalist and notable member of the Montagnards, Jean-Paul Marat would never see the French Revolution's conclusion in 1799. On July 13 th of thesis defense 1793, the 50-year-old writer was murdered by 24-year-old Charlotte Corday, who was either, depending on the propaganda you believe, a supporter of the monarchy or a supporter of the less radical Girondins, and blamed Marat for the escalating violence of the revolution. After making no attempt to escape after stabbing him, Corday was apprehended and executed by guillotine just four days later. 2. The Death of Marat was propaganda. Essays! Not only the leading artist of essay his time, but also a zealous Jacobin and official artist of the radical revolutionary cause, David was asked by the revolutionary government to glorify three of its lost members for political gain. Essentially, David was charged with making Marat a publicly recognized martyr to the cause and an epic hero. 3. It's both an idealized and accurate portrait of Marat . The propaganda angle informed David's creative choices, urging him to blend fact and chicago essays 2012 fiction.
Almost like a crime scene photo, David carefully captured the essay green rug, bathtub, papers and pen left behind by the late revolutionary. However, he opted to exclude Marat's physical imperfections. The reason Marat was working in essays, the bathtub to begin with was because he suffered from a skin condition, likely severe eczema. To soothe his skin, he habitually bathed in oatmeal. In depicting Marat’s final bath, David decided to portray his friend as a beautiful beacon, free of film such superficial flaws. 4. David pulled from religious inspiration to chicago essays, make Marat appear like a martyr. The positioning of Marat's right arm, long and limp, cascading down the canvas, has drawn comparisons to the death pose of Jesus in Caravaggio's The Entombment of Christ . David was a noted fan of the 16th century Italian painter and also mimicked his use of mental health essay competition light. 5. David also drew from Greek and Roman sculpture. Art historian E.H.
Gombrich explained of the creation of The Death of Marat: He had learned from the study of Greek and Roman sculpture how to model the muscles and sinews of the body, and chicago essays 2012 gave it the appearance of noble beauty; he had also learned from essay image in meaning memory, classical art to leave out all the details which were not essential to 2012, the main effect, and to aim at simplicity.” 6. The Death of Marat was revolutionary for bach essay image in meaning r susan, several reasons. The first is chicago that it depicts a martyr of the French Revolution. The second is that it was painted in the midst of the French Revolution, mere months after Marat's demise. The last revolutionary element relates to how it marked a change from David's typical subject matter. He'd previously pulled his subjects from classical antiquity, but here his muse was a contemporary figure. 7. The Death of Marat is the only one of David’s propaganda paintings to mental essay competition, survive. The Death of Lepeletier was destroyed on July 27 th , 1794 during the coup d'etat known as the Thermidorian Reaction.
The Death of Bara was never completed. Booth! 8. David decided to english topics for fifth graders, exclude Marat's killer almost completely. Chicago Essays 2012! While historian Alphonse de Lamartine would go on to describe Corday as the thesis defense Angel of chicago booth essays Assassination, David was understandably less fond of Marat's murderer. He chose instead to focus on the man he admired, and only includes a mention of Corday in the writings surrounding Marat's corpse. Similarly, he chose to remove the offending knife from his colleague's chest where Corday had left it. Instead, it sits, stained with blood, on the floor. 9. Corday's treachery is revealed in Marat's hand. Corday gained access to Marat's private moment by entreating the writer to mental health competition, read a petition. As depicted by chicago essays David, he was about to sign it as he was stabbed.
The artist makes it clear that in thesis cartoons, his dying moments Marat's last thoughts were only booth 2012, of the mental health essay competition revolution. 10. The Death of Marat was initially popular. 2012! Presented by David to his peers in November 15, 1793, the painting was instantly so beloved by the Montagnards and their sympathizers that it was hung in the hall of their National Convention of Deputies. Reproductions were also made for further propaganda use.
But as the biology a2 coursework tide turned against the Montagnards, so too did opinion of the painting. To protect it, David hid the work when he himself was exiled for chicago booth 2012, his part in the Reign of Terror. 11. The Death of Marat got a second life after David's death. Twenty-one years after David passed away in 1825, renewed interest came from French art critic and poet Charles Baudelaire's praises of the long-forgotten portrait. “The drama is here, vivid in its pitiful horror. This painting is thesis defense David’s masterpiece and one of the great curiosities of modern art because, by a strange feat, it has nothing trivial or vile … This work contains something both poignant and chicago booth 2012 tender; a soul is flying in the cold air of this room, on these cold walls, around this cold funerary tub.” 12. The iconic French painting now calls Brussels home. After having been banished for a second time after the fall of Napoleon, David fled with the painting and lived out the rest of his days in the Belgian capital. Sixty-one years later, David’s family decided to bequeath the painting to the city that accepted David.
And the Royal Museum of Fine Arts has been proud to display The Death of Marat since 1886. However, reproductions can be found in museums in Dijon, Reims, and Versailles. 13. It has inspired a couple of major tributes. In 1907, Edvard Munch, best known for The Scream , made an interpretation that put a nude Corday front and center. Picasso also applied his unique vision to the subject in 1931. 14.
It's repeatedly referenced in pop culture. In the movies, Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon and Derek Jarman's Caravaggio mimic the painting’s composition in their mise-en-scene. Andrzej Wajda's Danton includes a scene of David's creation of The Death of Marat . The scene was brought to life in Abel Gance's 1927 film Napoleon . It was rendered in garbage in the landfill documentary Waste Land . In 2013, it was gender-swapped with Lady Gaga in Marat's spot for ARTPOP. Topics Graders! And it has even been memed in response to contemporary conflicts. Chicago Booth 2012! 15. The Death of Marat has become more famous than Marat. Because of David's moving—if manipulative—depiction of his fallen friend, The Death of Marat has struck a chord and spent the last two centuries becoming a highly recognized painting. Though some viewers might not know it by name, they recognize its influential iconography. But Marat the bach memory r susan man is chicago booth essays known primarily because of this very portrait.
Fans of Trevor Paglen’s artwork won’t be able to find his newest upcoming piece in a museum. But if they’re in the right part of the world, they’ll be able to see it by stepping outside in 2018 and looking up at the night sky. That’s because Orbital Reflector , a 100-foot-tall collaboration with the thesis Nevada Museum of Art, will spend its two-month exhibition period in space, Motherboard reports. Chicago Booth 2012! Unlike other satellites circling our planet, Orbital Reflector will serve “no commercial, military, or scientific purpose,” according to biology plan, the project's Kickstarter. Instead, the massive, self-inflating sculpture will be solely intended to chicago, catch the eye of those viewing it from essay topics for fifth, Earth. Made from a brilliant, metallic material, the balloon-like satellite will be shaped like an chicago essays 2012 elongated diamond. At night, it will reflect the sun, making it visible to essay bribery and corruption, the naked eye for 2012, viewers on health, Earth. Essays 2012! The ambitious artwork is scheduled to hitch a ride on the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket in April 2018. After being deployed about 350 miles above Earth's surface, it will spend around two months in space before gradually falling back toward the ground and burning up in bach in meaning memory r susan, the atmosphere.
Paglen claims this will be the first satellite to essays 2012, enter Earth's orbit for mental health competition, strictly aesthetic purposes. In the chicago booth 2012 past, manmade art has been sent into bach connection essay image memory space with the booth essays hope that it would be seen by future generations or by extraterrestrials. A2 Coursework! But this time, the Earth's current inhabitants are the intended audience. Paglen's Kickstarter campaign—which will help fund the chicago booth essays sculpture’s construction and its delivery to space—is almost over. Take a peek at what the work will look like in the video below. New York has the biology plan MoMA. London has the Tate Modern.
And now, Quartz reports, Cape Town, South Africa, is essays 2012 home to the continent's largest contemporary art museum, the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa (MOCAA), which opened its doors to bach connection essay memory r susan, the public on September 22. The MOCAA is housed inside an old grain silo complex that’s been converted into booth essays 2012 a sleek, nine-floor attraction. Located in the city's Victoria Alfred Waterfront, the refurbished building provides visitors with views of the Atlantic Ocean when they aren’t busy perusing more than 100 galleries filled with works created by 21st century African and diaspora artists. Many of the defense cartoons artworks on display are on loan from the private collections of the museum’s namesake, former PUMA CEO Jochen Zeitz. The complex also contains six research centers, performance spaces, a curatorial training program, and booth 2012 a rooftop garden, in defense, addition to a boutique hotel on the top floor. While architecturally stunning, not everyone has embraced the MOCAA with open arms, as some argue that it doesn’t adequately represent Africans. For one, the museum is named for a German sportswear mogul instead of an African figurehead. Its location in Cape Town has also proven to chicago, be contentious, with some saying that lingering bigotry against english topics for fifth graders black residents makes the city a bad testing ground for a pan-African initiative. And, as Smithsonian points out, the museum’s top brass are white men, while nearly 80 percent of South Africa’s residents identify as black. Many of these locals likely also can’t afford the museum’s standard $13.50 admission fee, although the chicago booth essays 2012 MOCAA does offer free entry on Wednesdays to South Africans and other African citizens. These contentions aside, gallerists, curators, and artists involved with the museum are hopeful that the new institution will shed much-needed light on Africa’s many talented contemporary artists, and serve to unite—not divide—Africans. “We are all very excited about it, of course,” reflected renowned Nigerian curator Bisi Silva, according to Artsy, “but what we do definitely want to see is that it reaches out bribery, across the continent, and chicago booth essays 2012 that’s something that’s sometimes not as easy from South Africa.
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