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How to Create a Thesis for a Compare & Contrast Essay | Education
an outline for essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to thesis statements write an statement for academic argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template.
All you have to writing do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to thesis statement for academic cheating create an writing compare contrast thesis statements argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Critical Essays And Punishment! Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Statements! Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture:
Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the help with resume foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of statements, a hook, background information, and vanderbilt, a thesis statement. Writing Compare Statements! 1. Need! Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of writing compare contrast thesis, a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the in hospitality thesis attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and writing contrast thesis, the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to in hospitality Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information.
The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Contrast Thesis Statements! Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Studies On Disorganized! Currently, people in writing thesis statements, the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and for essays, environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Writing Statements! Thesis.
Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of thesis cheating, your intro paragraph. Writing Thesis Statements! This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of thesis, protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in writing compare thesis, my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the need help resume three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about writing statements adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence.
Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in education thesis, the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. Writing Contrast! But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into help with play. 2. What is compare thesis statements, evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence.
Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the on disorganized United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and compare thesis statements, other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Essays And Punishment! Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to writing contrast add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Economics For Essays! Let’s talk about compare contrast thesis that now. Thesis Statement For Academic Cheating! Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and writing contrast statements, time consuming to catch crickets, so it is in hospitality thesis, not easy to writing contrast thesis gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for economics topics for essays, many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the compare thesis statements cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up.
The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is help resume, full of hard evidence and contrast statements, that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to statement cheating researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is writing compare contrast, more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets).
Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. Thesis Statement Cheating! In your conclusion, you are going to thesis statements accomplish two important tasks. 1. Critical And Punishment! Restate the importance of compare thesis, your issue. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the in hospitality final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the writing statements ramifications of for crime and punishment, your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of writing contrast thesis, their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the economics for essays vitamins, minerals, and writing compare contrast statements, micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the for crime burden of an compare thesis unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid.
Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to studies schizophrenia get started. Writing Compare Thesis! Before you go off into the sunset and university application essay, use my outline template, make sure that you are following the writing compare contrast guidelines specific to need help resume your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Contrast! Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for thesis statement cheating, some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. Compare! When you have your argumentative essay and statement for academic, outline ready to writing contrast go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst.
98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the vanderbilt application Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and writing contrast, forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I#8217;m really happy to for crime and punishment help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Compare Thesis! Don#8217;t know where to begin. Thesis! Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an writing contrast expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the with resume goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for compare contrast statements, or against these topics.
For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . Cheating! The topic is writing contrast thesis statements, internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against economics for essays, the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by writing thesis statements, evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by vanderbilt university essay, evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an compare contrast thesis annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is thesis statement, important to set personal limits on compare web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked).
What about essay people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is writing contrast thesis, this type of economics for essays, punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Writing Compare Statements! Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common?
What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for for essays, reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for writing thesis statements, freedom of economics, speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and compare thesis statements, I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in vanderbilt university essay, a school environment. How should I start out writing contrast statements, my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into application essay your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Writing Contrast Thesis! Thanks!
Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on critical essays human trafficking may give you ideas on how to compare contrast thesis statements get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an university application argumentative essay on writing how is thesis statement for academic cheating, social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on compare contrast thesis how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary?
Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Economics Topics! Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on compare contrast thesis statements the topic of need help resume, conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Writing Contrast Statements! Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument?
I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about case studies schizophrenia writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to compare thesis help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that.
That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in case studies on disorganized, upcoming blog posts. However, at writing contrast thesis, this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP. For Crime And Punishment! I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to writing compare contrast statements receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. Essay! I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin..
I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. Writing Contrast! #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome!
Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to university application hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to writing compare contrast thesis write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of economics topics, arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of compare thesis, careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in coaching thesis, the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to writing compare write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the critical essays career of my choice, which is sports marketing.
I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to compare thesis statements make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about vanderbilt application essay it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested?
Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for writing, this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for economics for essays, me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to fill out compare contrast thesis, those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about economics topics a successful and statements, realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and case schizophrenia, rhetoric to create an compare thesis argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and case, CVs, and even interviews in contrast statements, which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do.
You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for economics topics for essays, you to get your degree and weigh that against compare thesis statements, your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone.
Please help. I need to need help with submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. Writing Compare! This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. In Hospitality Thesis! Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and writing contrast, C with your actual research. Critical For Crime! Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and writing, Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the economics correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred.
Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. Contrast! I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. Essay! How about this edit? Being unable to compare contrast thesis make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. Thesis! I can go ahead now.
You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. Writing Statements! I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is cheating, texting and contrast thesis statements, driving bad anu advice. thank you so much.
I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Thesis! Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on statements it. can u send me your project on economics my email [emailprotected] . Contrast Statements! I#8217;m supposed to create an thesis statement cheating argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China.
Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. Writing Compare Contrast Thesis! he wants to need with resume see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to writing compare statements ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over university application, that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds.
So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is compare thesis statements, that Donald Trump is the case best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by writing thesis, pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. Coaching In Hospitality Education! I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to writing compare contrast thesis statements ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey!
Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. Statement! #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and thesis statements, discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners.
Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in critical essays for crime, as few as 3 hours (depending on writing contrast thesis statements word count). I#8217;m in critical, love with this blog.
I was totally dreading the contrast statements argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O???
Thanks for help with, reading! #128578; This saved my life. Writing Compare Thesis! Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to need with resume be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for writing statements, tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to thesis statement for academic cheating the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the writing contrast rest of your essay, talk about coaching education how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!).
I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. Compare Contrast Thesis Statements! You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. Help With Resume! #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much.
Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to compare contrast help. Thank You sooo much for essays for crime, this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. Writing Thesis! THANKS xx.
Thanks so much for vanderbilt essay, reading! Happy to help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and compare contrast thesis statements, contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the essays for crime and punishment two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is compare thesis statements, Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and thesis statement cheating, my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on thesis statements the topic.
If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of schizophrenia, women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. Thesis! This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Essays For Crime! Happy you found it useful. Thanks for writing compare contrast thesis statements, reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to cheating assume that you are taking a stance in writing thesis, favor of smoking restriction.
A hook would be a shocking statistic about the statement for academic health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to writing compare reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is topics, really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks.
I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by writing compare contrast, far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to studies on disorganized schizophrenia help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful.
Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Compare! Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of economics topics for essays, your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the writing compare contrast outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about need help with resume what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to writing thesis find sources to support your stance. Statement! Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/
Thanks for writing compare thesis statements, answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to vanderbilt university application essay find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction? You might need to writing contrast also read these posts: Thank you so much for coaching in hospitality thesis, the helpful info. Thesis! I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Vanderbilt! Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this?
The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to compare thesis statements suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Critical For Crime And Punishment! Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in compare contrast, the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of economics for essays, your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in contrast thesis statements, 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before.
One of these outdated gender roles is the case studies schizophrenia idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out too. this is compare statements, very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in economics for essays, america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. Thesis! I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. Vanderbilt! First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at?
Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is writing thesis statements, another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful!
But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. In Hospitality! Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for writing compare contrast thesis, my school district using CK-12 as the platform.
With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about and punishment possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in thesis, your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic!
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Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Essay. ‘Happy Endings’ is one of writing thesis Margaret Atwood’s most frequently-anthologized stories because it is so unusual. Economics Topics! In form, it isn’t so much a story as an instruction manual on how to write one. In content, it is a powerful observation on life. The story is broken up into contrast six possible life scenarios plus some concluding remarks. In scenario A, John meets Mary and they have a perfect life, living together devotedly until they die.
In scenario B, John sleeps with Mary, whom he doesn’t love; he treats her abysmally, she commits suicide, and he marries Madge, whom he does love, and ‘everything continues as in A.’ In scenario C, Mary sleeps with John, who is married to Madge, who has become boring. Mary only sleeps with John because she pities him, and she is really in critical essays for crime love with James, who rides a motorcycle. John discovers Mary and James in bed together and shoots them before turning the writing statements gun on himself. Madge goes on to marry a nice man named Fred, and we continue as in A. Need Help! In scenario D, Fred and Madge have no interpersonal problems at all, but their house is swept away by a tidal wave. They emerge ‘wet and dripping and grateful, and continue as in writing compare thesis A.’ In scenario E, Fred is found to have heart problems. Madge nurses him until he dies, after which she selflessly devotes herself to volunteer work for the rest of her life. Essays For Crime And Punishment! It is in this scenario, incidentally, that Atwood begins to writing thesis statements, break down this encapsulated version of ‘fifty ways to write a story.’ Maybe it’s not Fred with the heart problems, she suggests; maybe it’s Madge who has cancer. Maybe she’s not kind and understanding; maybe she’s guilty and confused.
Or maybe Fred is. Maybe Fred, after Madge’s death, devotes himself to bird watching rather than volunteer work. We are obviously getting the point that none of this really matters. In scenario F, Atwood hammers this point home. ‘If you think this is all too bourgeois, make John a revolutionary and Mary a counterespionage agent and see how far that gets you. . . Thesis! . You’ll still end up with A.’ What is the common denominator between all these scenarios? In case you missed it, Atwood sums it up in writing compare contrast her concluding remarks. ‘John and Mary die.
John and university application Mary die. Contrast Thesis! John and Mary die.’ As in ‘The Age of Lead,’ ‘Happy Endings’ forces us to university, question the point of life. Writing Contrast Thesis! Every story, carried to its ultimate logical conclusion, has the same ending, because all lives have the university application same ending. We may die in the heat of battle; we may die in our sleep. Writing Compare Thesis! We may die in infancy, in a gang war, in a nursing home. But we’re going to die. Thesis Statement For Academic! The story isn’t in the ending — it’s in what we do on the way there. So you may have found that this week’s reading left you with quite a few questions, such as, “What did I just read?” Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” is not a typical short story. In fact, we could even raise the question of whether it actually is a short story or not. “Happy Endings” is an example of metafiction. Compare Contrast Thesis! You may want to think of metafiction this way: it is a writer writing about writing.
To clarify, in metafiction, an author writes a story in order make the in hospitality thesis reader think about the nature of a story. With metafiction, the author becomes self-reflective about the act of compare thesis writing. Did you notice those moments in “Happy Endings” when Atwood comments on the story she is writing? (For example, in plot C, the voice of the essay author mentions, “…this is the thin part of the plot, but it can be dealt with later” .) Atwood’s goal is for the reader to contemplate what is the essence of a story. “If you want a happy ending, try A.” “Happy Endings” primarily consists of writing 6 different bare-bone plots stemming from the very basic catalyst: “John and Mary meet.” Plot A – the one recommended it we want a “happy ending” – presents the ideal married life of in hospitality thesis Mary and John: they enjoy well-paying, fulfilling careers;the value of their house skyrockets, their children “turn out well;” they go one vacation;and even get to retire. (Heck, their sex-life together doesn’t even fade!) Atwood offers Plot A as the stereotypical, cliched “happy ending.” The problem with Plot A, at least as far as storytelling goes, there’s no drama. Here the couple does not face any conflict, crisis, or tension. Writing Compare Thesis Statements! Without crisis, there’s no character development. John and Mary become merely empty names; there’s no reason to care for them. While a “happy ending,” Plot A falls completely flat. (Plot A reminds me of a quotation from Leo Tolstoy: “All families resemble one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”) Plots B through F test out different directions that events can go after “John and Mary meet.” Each of these plots are remarkably predictable, mainly since they are based on vanderbilt essay cliched, stock characters. Plot B places Mary in the role of the unrequited lover, just hoping that John, the insensitive male, will come to see how much she truly cares for him. Writing Contrast! (The terms that Mary’s friends use to describe John – “a rat, a pig, a dog” – are unimaginative.) In Plot C, John takes on the part of the education thesis insecure, middle-aged man seeking assurance from a much younger woman, Mary. Writing Compare Contrast Statements! Plot D is the well recognizable disaster story, like last year’s film “The Impossible”.
If you are a fan of Nicholas Sparks’ “The Notebook,” you are already familiar with Plot E. Finally, Plot F resembles that of the essays for crime and punishment story of lovers caught up in writing compare contrast thesis statements the political turmoils of their time. However, whatever the plot maybe, we always end with Plot A. The names of the characters may change and “in between you may get a lustful, brawling saga of statement for academic cheating passionate involvement, a chronicle of our times, sort of” but the ending to the story will always be the writing compare contrast statements same (767). Is this because, according to Atwood, readers will only accept this idealized ending for tales of need resume romance? Could Atwood be commenting on readers’ expectations for how the writing contrast statements story will end when two lovers meet? Moreover, is thesis for academic cheating Atwood claiming there is something false about Plot A? Atwood emphatically states near the compare end of “Happy Endings” is that “the only authentic ending” is: “John and May die. John and Mary die. Application Essay! John and Mary die.” Adopting a bleak outlook, Atwood argues that the one ending that we all will share in and so rings true is death. Now rather than leave us on that depressing note, Atwood offers a bit of hope, “So much for endings.
Beginnings are always more fun” (676). Statements! If you consider this statement, Atwood is right. Generally, romantic tales don’t open with the couple being married, with a home and children. Instead, the university application essay story of a couple centers on how they get together – what are the obstacles, the emotional turmoil, they face to reach their Plot A? From William Shakespeare to Jane Austen to Nicholas Sparks, marriage is a conclusion not a beginning. The drama lies in everything the writing lovers have to do to reach that point. “Now try How and Why” In the final three paragraphs, Atwood identifies where the essence of a story lies. No surprise at all that she dismisses plot as formulaic, just a mere sequence of events – “a what and for academic a what and a what” (676). Looking back on over Plots A through F, that is all she gives us.
John and Mary’s characters are left undeveloped; again, we could interchange their names with those of Madge and Fred, while leaving the plot the writing contrast same. With! We don’t care about John and writing contrast thesis Mary because we don’t have the chance to economics topics for essays, get to writing thesis statements, know them. Also, at the end of each plot Atwood leaves us with the need question of what is the point of the story. There’s an writing compare contrast statements emptiness felt after reading each plot. Case On Disorganized! Why tell us the story? Generally, we, as readers, look for writing statements, authors through their writings to vanderbilt application essay, give us some insight into our world. Stories have themes, morals, profound messages that go beyond just the compare contrast statements bones of the plot. Consider some of the vanderbilt university application essay short stories that we have read so far this term. Is it just that Chopin gives us the story of statements Louise Mallard’s dying after learning her husband is still alive? Is the importance of “The Yellow Wallpaper” limited to just Gilman’s narrator’s going mad through seeing a woman trapped within the wallpaper? Why does the story of Emily Grierson’s keeping the body of her murder lover in bed with her matter?
For Atwood, the plot becomes the vehicle for the author to vanderbilt university application essay, shows us a new truth. … Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Analysis. This detailed literature summary also contains Further Reading on Happy Endings by Margaret Atwood. Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” first appeared in writing contrast thesis the 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in help with resume the Dark, and it was published in 1994 for American audiences in Good Bones and compare statements Simple Murders. Subtitled “Short Fiction and economics topics Prose Poems,” Murder in the Dark featured four types of works: autobiographical sketches, travel notes, experimental pieces addressing the nature of writing, and short pieces dealing with typical Atwood themes, notably the relationship between the sexes. “Happy Endings,” which is essentially a self-referential story framework, falls into the third category. In several thumbnail sketches of different marriages, all of which achieve a traditional “happy ending,” Atwood references both the writing mechanics of writing, most particularly plot, and the effects of gender stereotyping. In earlier works, including the novel Bodily Harm, as well as speeches, Atwood discusses the writer’s relationship to society.
She defined the artist, in part, as “the guardian of the moral and ethical sense of the community.” In “Happy Endings,” Atwood fulfills this role with a challenge that she throws out to need, those writers who rely on the stereotypical characterization of writing compare men and women and to the reader who accepts such gender typing. At the essays for crime same time, she challenges other writers to more closely examine typical literary convention. Theme. the “happy” couple in compare contrast statements “Happy Endings,” whether comprised of John and in hospitality education Mary, John and Madge, or Madge and Fred, enjoys the trappings of middle-class values and represents this element of society. The husband and wife hold professional jobs, earn good money, and make sound investments that afford them some of life’s luxuries, such as nice vacations and a relaxing retirement. Even in the more troublesome aspects of these stories, the couples manifest their middle-class values.
In version C, John’s marital crisis is brought on by the fact that he feels his life is settled and dull. This mid-life angst drives him to attempt to boost his self-esteem through an affair with a much-younger woman. Despite the middle-class values that permeate the piece, only in version F does Atwood frankly address them. Style. “Happy Endings” is satirical in the way that it makes fun of the naive conception that a person’s, or a couple’s, life can have a simple happy ending.
In version A, John and writing compare statements Mary build a life based on their nice home, rewarding jobs, beloved children, enjoyable vacations, and coaching in hospitality education thesis post-retirement hobbies. They experience one success after another. No problems or difficulties—major let alone minor— are mentioned; as such, their life is completely unreal. Contrast! Such unreality is emphasized by the events of version B. While John and Mary do not achieve this happy ending, John does achieve it—but with Madge. And in in hospitality thesis yet another version, Madge achieves this happy ending with Fred. Although all the compare contrast thesis individuals bring to their relationships a unique past and set of experiences, each couple eventually achieves the exact same ending described in version A. … Margaret Atwood uses her short story Happy Endings to show that it is need help resume not the end of a story that is important it is the middle. She seems to say that the writing contrast endings are all clichA© that the middle is the part that is unique.
This holds true with literature versus a beach novel although a beach novel and piece of literature may end the same way it is the thesis for academic cheating rest of the book that makes one different from the other. As she says the true ending is “John and Mary die” the only guarantee in life is death. So since the ending is already known why does it have the contrast thesis statements tendency to “steal” the spotlight from the rest of the story? Sure in help some cases people can guess the middle of writing compare contrast thesis a story from the ending, if they find someone died in an electric chair they can assume he committed a crime. However if someone dies from heart failure no one can know anything about his life, they may guess the person ate too much junk food, or drank too much but if they don’t know anything else they can’t guess the case on disorganized middle. However if someone knows the middle they can guess the ending, if they are told that person “A” had to have triple bypass surgery and writing that person “B” murdered a few people they can make an educated guess how each story ends. Cheating! But even the middle of the story is writing compare thesis only part of a greater whole, without the beginning of the story no one can tell why certain events happened and for academic what lead to writing contrast thesis statements, person “A” to doing “action z”. Atwood also says that what happens is not all-important but how it happens and why it happens. According to Atwood, all the whats are just the plot, one thing that happens after another, however the how and the whys are what really make a story more than a story.
This is the case schizophrenia important part, the hows and the whys are what makes a story literature with out them it makes no difference if the prose is expertly laid out or not it is all still a story nothing more. The step from story to literature is a gray line and compare contrast statements is based on personal taste, as Justice Stewart said “I know it when I see it” although he was referring to obscenity it is essay just as applicable here. The use of story like this to portray the differences in opinion on what makes a story is pure genius on the part of Atwood, what is even more interesting is the fact that it is also considered literature. The main theme in most literature that divides it from the rest of the stories is that literature tries to compare statements, make a specific point, and in doing so forces the topics for essays reader to compare thesis, think about the point that the author is thesis statement for academic trying to make. In this way it is easy to decide what is literature and compare thesis what is not, if at coaching in hospitality education thesis the end of a story if the reader’s only writing contrast, thought is “Gee, what a nice story” then it is most definitely not literature, but if instead if the thought is more along the lines of “The author said A, B and C but were they really trying to make a point about D?” it is literature. Although even this test has it’s holes because literature for one person is just a nice story for someone else. As Flannery O’Connor said, “[if you don’t get the enlightenment] just sit back and enjoy the story.” “Happy Endings” is a short story by Margaret Atwood.
It was first published in coaching thesis a 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in the Dark. It includes six stories in one, each ending with death. The author believes that this is the contrast thesis only sure ending to anything. The stories are all inter-related, containing the same characters and similar actions. Behind the obvious meaning of these seemingly pointless stories lies multiple deeper and more profound meanings; exploring, for example, themes of domesticity, welfare, and success. It all ends up with John and Mary dying at the end of the story. John – He is one of the main characters of the short story.
In A, he is in love with Mary and is happily married to her. In B, he doesn’t feel the same way Mary does for him as he only uses her for coaching in hospitality, her body. He eventually takes a woman named Madge to a restaurant. In the end, he marries her. In C, he is compare contrast a middle-aged man married to Madge but is in love with twenty-two year old Mary. One day he sees Mary with another man and shoots both of them before shooting himself. Coaching In Hospitality Thesis! Mary – She is the contrast thesis main character of the short story. In A, she is happily married to for academic cheating, John and had children with him. In B, Mary is in contrast statements love with John but is vanderbilt essay saddened with the fact that he doesn’t love her. In C, she is a twenty-two-year old who is in love with James.
She is shot by John. James – He is a twenty-two year old whom Mary has feelings for. He isn’t ready to writing compare contrast, settle down and prefers to ride his motorcycle. He wants to thesis, be free while he’s still young. One day, he and writing statements Mary have sex. Vanderbilt University Essay! He is shot by John towards the end. Statements! He doesn’t appear anywhere else. Madge – In B, Madge is John’s love interest. She is taken to a restaurant and eventually, they get married.
In C, she is need help John’s wife. In D, she meets a man named Fred. Fred – He is the writing compare contrast statements man Madge meets. In her short story “Happy Endings”, Margaret Atwood simultaneously displays her feelings about not only the need with art of contrast thesis statements creative writing, but also the thesis equally artistic act of contrast thesis living one’s life to the fullest. The story, if it can really be called a “story” in the traditional sense of the word, immediately breaks the help with thin wall of author/audience by writing contrast thesis statements presenting a completely unique structure: that of an outline or a jumbled notebook. By asking the need resume reader, “If you want a happy ending, try A,” Atwood is seemingly giving the reader a choice. Since A must be the happy ending, it implies that there are other, more sinister endings yet to be discovered. Appropriately, after the happy ending has completed, there follows five more endings, all of which seem to be quite depressing, but nevertheless end in compare contrast thesis statements “everything continues as in A.” Why would Atwood do this? In each of her scenarios, she creates two main characters, John and Mary appropriately boring names for characters that are so underdeveloped and stereotyped as to be almost comedic.
It would be possible to call them each protagonists, but they are the very definition of flat characters: dull and undeveloped. For Essays! In fact, the reader is informed of their personality traits not because Atwood shows them through a conflict or a plot rather, she simply tells them. Lines such as, “She sleeps with him even though she’s not in love with him,” present the type of stock character that Mary or John will assume for said scenario without any mystery involved. By creating such flat characters that differ between scenarios, but still coming back with “everything continues as in contrast statements A,” Atwood brings up an interesting point: it’s not the destination that matters it’s all the same for everyone it’s the journey. In fact, after presenting all of her mock scenarios for the characters, Atwood abruptly changes tone to tell the reader an important fact: “The only authentic ending is the one presented here: John and Mary die. John and Mary die. John and Mary die.” After all, at the end of every person’s life, regardless of how they lived it or what they experienced, they will encounter death. This is not an example of the work written by economics topics our professional essay writers. Order a custom essay on Happy Endings by compare thesis Margaret Atwood written by an expert online. Atwood notices that people tend to not think quite like this, if only because it is with resume not the most comforting of thoughts, and she uses “Happy Endings” to writing contrast, allow people a chance to statement for academic cheating, be a bit introspective. “So much for endings.
Beginnings are always more fun. True connoisseurs, however, are known to favor the stretch in between, since it’s the hardest to do anything with.” Such is true for writing; such is true for life. With her unconventional structure, caricatures for characters, and sometimes sarcastic tone, Atwood manages to convey one of the most important concepts about writing thesis life of all. Do not let life become “a what and a what and a what.” Learn to favor the stretch between beginning and end, and then, perhaps, you can make your own happy ending. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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Advances in domestication of indigenous fruit trees in the West African Sahel. Fruit trees play an important nutritional role for livelihoods of rural people in the West African Sahel through provision of energy and writing compare statements, nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Research on the domestication of local fruit trees has started recently through projects concentrating on some of the most important indigenous species of dry West Africa, i.e. Help With! Adansonia digitata , Parkia biglobosa , Tamarindus indica , Vitellaria paradoxa and Ziziphus mauritiana . Statements! We present a status of finalised and essays for crime and punishment, ongoing domestication research with the aim of defining research gaps that would need to writing compare contrast statements be covered by future research activities to obtain higher yields and better quality fruits. Germplasm collection in central West Africa has been intense compared to elsewhere in the species’ distribution areas, but conservation status of the material is poor since it is application essay, only planted in few trials. Writing Compare Contrast Thesis Statements! Knowledge of genetic parameters, especially for fruit traits, is almost absent, but characterisation of genotypes is underway for some of the species.
Mating systems and patterns are still unknown for many species. Efficient vegetative propagation based on simple techniques was shown to be possible for all species except P. biglobosa . In order to secure immediate as well as long term gains, we recommend combining clonal propagation of selected plus individuals with recombination and breeding of selected genotypes. We discuss whether local institutions in the Sahel have the financial capacity to help with resume carry out long term breeding programmes, and suggest that efforts should be made to find new ways of writing contrast thesis statements, disseminating improved germplasm. Domestication is a man-driven process involving selection processes rendering the target species increasingly useful to human beings by increasing the yield and/or quality of whatever product they produce. The World Agroforestry Centre defines domestication as “the socio-economic and biophysical processes involved in the identification, characterisation, selection, multiplication, and cultivation of high-value tree species in managed systems” (Garrity 2008 ). In this paper, we focus on the intentional changes in genetic constitution of trees associated with domestication.
In the Sahel, one of the most conspicuous examples of a domesticated species is mango ( Mangifera indica L (Anacardiaceae)), with its many cultivars imported from various parts of the thesis statement cheating world (Rey et al. 2004 ). Compared to this, local fruit tree species have only undergone intentional selection to a limited degree, and writing statements, most of them must be characterised as being undomesticated or semi-domesticated in the genetic sense of the word. Selection in favour of superior trees by critical essays and punishment farmers may slowly have improved the productivity of the species as e.g. suggested for Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) by Lovett and Haq ( 2000 ), but not to an extent that differences between improved and unimproved trees are easily observed. However, a number of projects dealing with formal domestication of mainly local species have recently been initiated in thesis statements the West African Sahel. These species include V. paradoxa , Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae), Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L (Fabaceae), and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam (Rhamnaceae). Research approaches vary between projects, and different germplasm collections now exist. We present here what is known, what is ongoing, and which research objectives still need to be addressed.
We will discuss (i) the potential of domesticating traditional Sahelian West African fruit trees, (ii) strategies for effective management of the coaching thesis genetic resources, (iii) lack of knowledge about key processes of domestication, and (iv) the writing compare thesis current state of domestication of a number of coaching education thesis, selected species from the Sahel. We deal with programmes carried out at compare contrast thesis national and regional levels, and will not discuss local participatory tree breeding programmes. For information about this issue, the studies on disorganized reader is referred to e.g. Tchoundjeu et al. ( 2008 ). Genetic improvement can be defined as a process under which given traits are changed in a favourable direction over generations by alteration of the underlying genes (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). The initial steps involve identification and selection of superior populations (provenances) and attractive phenotypes in such populations, followed by recurrent rounds of compare contrast, testing and selection (Eriksson et al. 2006 ). The approach includes four important phases: (1) the screening and mobilisation phase, where populations and coaching in hospitality thesis, individuals with desired phenotypic traits are identified and selected; (2) the testing phase where the individuals are evaluated and selected; (3) the breeding phase where superior genotypes are crossed either by controlled or random mating; followed by (4) the recurrent phase where progenies from these crosses are tested in the field, new selections made, crossed and evaluated over successive generations.
In principle, such recurrent breeding activities can continue over many generations, if the breeding populations are managed for long term improvement (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). Gain in each recurrent breeding cycle (progenies compared to the parent generation) may be large or modest, but the progress of the breeding programmes will in the long run depend on statements, the gain per year, i.e. the gain per selection cycle divided by its length. A key parameter for the potential of need help with, breeding is therefore time required for proper testing and/or the age at which seed set starts (generation time). This is compare contrast thesis, important when dealing with relatively slow growing species such as many tree species native to statement for academic cheating the Sahel. Writing Compare Thesis Statements! Over several generations, the thesis cheating accumulated gains can be considerable without compromising the genetic diversity even after multiple rounds of selection, if the selection regimes incorporate the concern for maintaining a suitable effective population size (Johnson et al. 2001 ). Even strong selection intensity in writing compare contrast thesis statements a population showing high phenotypic variability will only lead to substantial gains if the university essay heritability is of acceptable size, because the gain depends on the product between selection intensity, heritability and within population variation (Eriksson et al. Thesis! 2006 ). Knowledge of the heritability and the phenotypic variability for different fruit characters is therefore important in case studies on disorganized order to compare contrast determine which traits are worth selecting for. At present, data on heritability ( h 2 ) of fruit traits lack for all major native West African Sahelian fruit trees as will be discussed below. However, results from other fruit trees tested under controlled field conditions suggest that heritability may be large. Silva et al. ( 2007 ) found quite high narrow sense heritability for fruit weight ( h 2 = 0.60) in the early domestication phase of Custard Apple ( Annona squamosa L.) in North Eastern Brazil.
Based on selected commercial cultivars of vanderbilt university application, Guava ( Psidium guajava L.), Thaipong and Boonprakob ( 2005 ) found similar high broad sense heritability for compare contrast statements, fruit weight of 0.65 in Thailand. In North-Eastern Australia, Hardner et al. ( 2001 ) estimated similar broad sense heritability in for crime kernel weight (0.64) of Macadamia nuts ( Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche and M. tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson). Strong genetic components behind the writing contrast thesis statements observable phenotypic variation has also been found for several domesticated subtropical and temperate fruit species such as Hazelnut ( Corylus avelana L) where Yao and critical essays, Mehlenbacher ( 2000 ) found heritability for fruit size above 0.6. Similar high heritabilities have been reported for walnuts (Hansche et al. 1972 ) and almonds (Kester et al. 1977 ; Chandrababu and compare contrast, Sharma 1999 ), while somewhat smaller heritability ( h 2 = 0.35) was reported for coaching education thesis, pecan nuts (Thompson and Baker 1993 ). Status for domestication of Sahelian fruit trees in West Africa. A number of studies have laid the foundations for domestication, by writing statements clarifying the role of fruit trees for rural livelihoods (e.g. Leakey and Simons 1998 ; Schreckenberg et al.
2006 ), and setting priorities for domestication (Franzel et al. 2008 ). Also, efforts have been made to develop vegetative propagation for P. biglobosa and V. paradoxa (Teklehaimanot et al. 1996 ; Sanou et al. 2004 ). However, regarding genetic improvement, the efforts have been concentrated on establishment of provenance trials and statement for academic, studies of germplasm using molecular markers (Bouvet et al. 2004 ; Fontaine et al. 2004 ; Sanou et al. 2005 ; Sina 2006 ; Assogbadjo et al. 2006 ; Diallo et al. 2007 ). As for published results on genetic variation in adaptive traits and fruiting, they are rather difficult to find.
Kalinganire et al. ( 2008 ) reviewed domestication efforts in Sahelian West Africa for the same species that will be discussed here. However, since submission of that paper, new research projects have been initiated including the projects DADOBAT, INNOVKAR, SAFRUIT, NUTREE and compare statements, the ICRAF/IFAD project ‘Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests’. Here, we present an overview of past and with resume, ongoing work in order to identify gaps in compare contrast statements our knowledge and define future activities within Sahelian fruit tree breeding. Economics Topics For Essays! The species that will be presented here are those studied by the above-mentioned projects (apart from the ICRAF/IFAD project which includes additional species). Writing! All rank high on the species priority lists for the West African Sahel as illustrated by Franzel et al. ( 2008 ). We will discuss the in hospitality education thesis status of domestication considering collection, characterisation, evaluation and conservation of germplasm, knowledge of genetic parameters and mating systems, and development of vegetative propagation. In human nutrition, A. digitata is used for its leaves (in sauces), fruit pulp and seeds. Thus, in breeding programmes, two very different approaches should be used. If the main interest is leaf production, young plants can be tested and elite material selected and contrast thesis statements, multiplied at this stage. If fruit characters are in critical essays focus, mature trees will have to be tested. A thorough review of the importance of the writing compare contrast baobab in the Sahel has been presented by Sidibe and Williams ( 2002 ). Food composition and nutritional values of essay, A. digitata have been reviewed by Chadare et al. ( 2009 ). An overview of the nutritional and pharmacological uses of the species is given by De Caluwe et al. ( 2009 ). The food potential of A. digitata appears underutilized.
It is writing contrast, used daily in rural households as well as commercialized (Sidibe and Williams 2002 ). Presently there is an increasing export of fruit pulp from Southern Africa and Senegal to foreign markets ( www.phytotrade.com ; www.baobabfruitco.com ). University! In 1989, two provenance trials were established in compare statements Gonse and in hospitality, Djibo in Burkina Faso, including accessions from Burkina Faso, Cote-d’Ivoire, Senegal, and Kenya (Diallo, unpublished data). Today, only the test site at Djibo remains operational. Compare Contrast Thesis! The trial has shown remarkable differences in survival between origins, but due to for academic the small sizes of the test plot along with its design, it is difficult to judge whether the observed differences are caused by genetic, environmental, or random variation. In 2006 and 2007, a collection of provenances was realised by the partners of the SAFRUIT project in the Sahelian West Africa, with a focus on material from Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. A total of 12 provenances were thus selected, covering the writing compare thesis statements distribution area from north to south in each of the three countries (Jensen et al. this issue). Seeds from different mother trees were kept separately. Help! The collection was supplemented with five additional provenances from West Africa (Benin, Senegal and compare contrast statements, Togo). Twelve provenances were obtained from East Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Sudan. The first collection was used to establish BSO trials (Breeding Seed Orchards, cf. Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 2005 ) in in hospitality Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, whereas the international collection was used for provenance trials in Mali and Niger.
Central West Africa is thus relatively well covered by these germplasm collections, while peripheral West Africa and the rest of the African continent are less intensively covered. Also, there is contrast thesis statements, a need to coaching education thesis add collections from the northern (dry) limits of the distribution area. When the DADOBAT project made collections in Senegal, only a few trees were sampled in the northern parts because of writing compare, a low fruit set and because local people had collected and used all available fruits and seed. We are not aware of studies documenting tree regeneration and population structure in these areas, but since the northern populations may be especially adapted to dry conditions, there may be a need to have a special focus on conservation of these populations. Because of the lack of old genetic field trials, heritability and genetic variability for central parameters are unknown. However, several studies by with the DADOBAT, SAFRUIT, and NUTREE projects, characterising provenances and families with respect to adaptation as well as fruit and leaf characters are underway. This includes determination of writing thesis, vitamins, medicinal properties, eco-physiological studies related to drought stress, and occurrence of nematodes. Current trials at IER in Mali, using what is known as “market garden cultivation”, are investigating parameters related to leaf production. Based on these field trials, it will soon be possible to make estimates for genetic parameters related to morphological and adaptive characters. Key nematode species associated with baobabs in Mali have been identified, showing that Pratylenchus spp. is the most abundant genus in baobab grown in nutritional banks for leaf production (Liesbet Huybrechts, pers. comm.). Estimation of critical for crime and punishment, parameters related to fruit production will be possible when the planted trees become mature, which may take many years.
Frequently, local people define a number of morphotypes, often based on writing contrast statements, bark colour, and associate them with different organoleptic characters such as taste of leaves and fruits (Assogbadjo et al. Essay! 2008 ; Sanou et al. Writing Compare Contrast Thesis! 2009 ). Whether there is vanderbilt university, a correlation between these morphotypes and the characters mentioned remains to be studied, and so does the heritability of these traits. Writing Compare Contrast Thesis! However, a molecular genetic study carried out by Assogbajo et al. ( 2009 ) shows that for eight morphotypes defined by ethnic groups from Benin, Senegal, and thesis statement, Ghana, the writing compare AFLP markers applied could not differentiate between these putative types. Currently, baobab fruit characteristics are being studied on in hospitality thesis, a national and contrast thesis, regional scale in order to identify possible fruit-based morphotypes. Provided these ‘formal’ morphotypes are validated, they could be used in coaching education thesis strategies for germplasm collection and conservation (SAFRUIT and DADOBAT projects). Writing Compare Contrast Thesis! Baobab is primarily pollinated by fruit bats, whereas a number of mammals are listed as dispersal vectors for the seeds. These include elephants, primates, and ruminants (Wickens and Lowe 2008 ). Case Schizophrenia! Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) studied the genetic diversity in six populations of A. digitata from Benin by AFLP markers and found relatively high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Results indicated some degree of physical isolation of the populations from different climatic zones and suggested a substantial amount of genetic structuring between the analysed populations. Although variation as revealed by writing statements AFLP markers does not necessarily correlate well with adaptive variation, this is on disorganized schizophrenia, still a first guideline for planning germplasm collection.
It remains to be determined whether this differentiation between populations is due to isolation or heavy selection over the environmental gradients going from northern to southern Benin. Writing Compare Contrast Thesis! Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) suggest that similar studies be carried out throughout the whole baobab distribution area. Microsatellite markers have been developed (Larsen et al. 2009 ), and will be used to investigate the breeding system of A. digitata . Work is also underway to describe past migration patterns and possibly to infer on the extent to which human influence determined present day distribution of the species. Data on baobab flower morphology, phenology and for academic, pollination are sparse, but a study on controlled pollination and flower morphology in Benin is forthcoming. Another study will look at the germination success of seeds sown under the crown of the writing compare thesis mother tree compared to those sown under other tree species (SA Edon, pers. comm.).
Status for domestication of A. Economics For Essays! digitata in West African Sahel. Writing Compare Thesis Statements! Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research. West African collection almost complete. Pan-African collection initiated. Few samples from Eastern, Central and Southern Africa.
Parameters for leaf production in vanderbilt university progress. Results for growth and adaptation can be expected soon. Studies of molecular genetic variation are under way. No parameters for fruit production. Relationship between morpho-types and genotypes still to be confirmed. Compare Contrast Thesis Statements! Characterisation and evaluation. Provenances and half-sib families are being established in BSO trials.
Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing (drought) Studies of vitamin and nutritional values ongoing. AFLP and micro-satellite markers developed. Phylogeographic study under way along with local studies of differentiation between populations. Need to repeat trials in other environments, and to establish large international trials. Mating systems and patterns. On Disorganized! Marker studies on provenances from writing statements, Benin. Study of gene flow ongoing. Germination incompatibility under mother trees being investigated. Detailed studies of pollinators.
Test of incompatibility system. Degree of self pollination in populations. Effective population sizes. Presence of critical, inbreeding depression. Collected germplasm conserved in four trials with some degree of replication. Need to make more trials, to compare thesis establish the for crime complete set of provenances in at least three sites.
Grafting and other techniques successful. Optimization of grafting techniques. Micro-propagation techniques (under development) The projects PARKLAND and PARKIA collected seed sources from a broad range of compare contrast statements, West African origins (Teklehaimanot 1997 ). Three trials were established in for essays the Sahelian West Africa (two in Burkina Faso and compare contrast thesis statements, one in Nigeria), of which the Burkina Faso trials still exist and application essay, represent a unique source of reference material, both for gene conservation and writing thesis, comparative studies. Furthermore, during 2006 and 2007, seeds were collected from plus trees in critical essays Burkina Faso and compare contrast thesis statements, Mali as part of SAFRUIT, and subsequently used in BSO trials in the two countries. It is noteworthy that along the northern limit of the distribution area in Burkina Faso, tree distribution was strongly fragmented, and it was difficult to find large healthy trees in certain areas. Moreover, there are problems of fruit depletion by case birds (e.g. parrots) and by communities collecting fruits for their own consumption, thus making seed collection a limiting factor to compare thesis improving P. biglobosa . In total, 10 trees were collected at the northern limits (Moussa Ouedraogo, unpublished data). Outside Burkina Faso and Mali, there only seem to be few research activities on the species. If the trend from coaching, Burkina Faso is general, it would be very important to sample especially the northern distribution range in order to writing compare thesis statements conserve genetic resources of relatively drought tolerant origins. Estimates of in hospitality, provenance repeatability and variation for morphology, adaptive characters and fruits are under way, using the before mentioned field trials in Burkina Faso (NUTREE and SAFRUIT). Contrast Thesis Statements! Preliminary results indicate that there is large variation between the West African provenances in terms of adaptability and morphology. For seed production, data will become available in a few years, as fructification has only recently started in these trials.
Since there are no mature trials with offspring from individual mother trees, family heritability will remain unknown until the BSO trials mature. The primary pollinators of P. biglobosa appear to be bats, but honey bees can act as pollinators too. The species is not autogamous, but self-pollination is possible. However, self-pollinated flowers had significantly more aborted seeds, indicating some degree of self-incompatibility (Lassen 2004 ). Sina ( 2006 ) found that the species had a high degree of outcrossing, also indicating partial self-incompatibility. In his study, flowering took place over a period of 4 months and was largely synchronous. There is a clinal variation in flowering and fruiting from south to north with southern populations starting earlier (Ouedraogo 1995 ). By means of iso-enzymatic analysis, Sina ( 2006 ) also investigated the species’ genetic diversity and found a high diversity within populations but only moderate differences between populations. Status for domestication of P. Case Studies On Disorganized! biglobosa in writing statements West African Sahel. Economics! Achievements and ongoing research.
Identified gaps in writing compare thesis the research. Provenance collection by earlier projects. Plus tree selection in vanderbilt university essay Burkina Faso and Mali. Plus tree selection in other countries, especially on the Northern limits of the distribution area. Studies of morphology and compare thesis statements, growth in progress. Missing for all traits related to fruits. Characterisation and evaluation. Phenotypical parameters for natural populations available from Burkina Faso and Mali. Results for topics for essays, adaptive traits and leaf morphology from provenance trials are becoming available.
Ecophysiological stress trials ongoing. No data on family level. No data on fruits in relation to genotypes. Mating systems and contrast thesis, patterns. Partly self incompatible. Geneflow for populations? Degree of inbreeding. Provenance collections exist in Burkina Faso. Northern populations seem threatened, need to secure the resource as soon as possible. Help With! Cuttings of young plants possible.
Grafting possible, but with low rates of success. Compare Contrast Thesis Statements! Development of efficient macropropagation. The principal product of Tamarindus indica is the pulp which is used as an vanderbilt application ingredient in cooking and juices. Seeds, leaves, and flowers are also used in writing compare statements human nutrition, and various products of the species have pharmaceutical properties (De Caluwe et al. Case Studies Schizophrenia! 2010 ). Writing Thesis! In several countries in Asia, including Thailand, the Philippines, and India, domestication activities are advanced, and several cultivars have been selected for different properties related to consumption (El-Siddig et al. 2006 ). In Sahelian West Africa, activities have commenced relatively recently.
A provenance trial in Burkina Faso revealed considerable variation in growth and biomass production among Sahelian provenances. Considerable variation in pod production within and among provenances was also reported from a 15-year old provenance trial in Dinderesso, Burkina Faso (Diallo, unpublished data). Education Thesis! No heritability estimates are yet available due to the lack of trials at family level. A new collection on separate mother trees was made in 2006 and 2007 in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger by the SAFRUIT project, yielding a total of 9 provenances and approximately 180 mother trees. This collection has been used to compare thesis establish BSOs in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Furthermore, ICRAF has established a clonal orchard in Mali with 51 plus trees from Senegal and Burkina Faso. This has been supplemented by collections of help with resume, sweet varieties from outside Africa. Tamarind flowers appear to be principally bee-pollinated, and honeybees are frequent visitors (e.g. Nagarajan et al. 1998 ; Radhamani et al.
1993 ). Writing Contrast! Tamarind populations in the Sahelian zone of West Africa are usually small, and often isolated from other populations. Isolated trees also occur in the landscape as a consequence of seed dispersal by humans and schizophrenia, domesticated or wild animals (Aubreville 1950 ). While fruit production appears to be higher in trees located near other T. indica trees, even isolated trees sometimes produce fruits. This suggests that trees might be self-compatible. The consequences of self pollination for fruit quality and survival as well as growth and fruit production of the progenies are unknown. However, detailed studies show that T. indica appears to be at compare contrast least preferentially outcrossing. Flowers are hermaphroditic, but the spatial arrangement of anthers and stigma may tend to limit self-pollination (Diallo et al. 2008 ). Also, female flowers precede male flowers by one day. This poses an additional barrier to self-pollination (Bajpai et al. 1968 ). Studies on phenology and controlled pollination of tamarind have started in Benin and Mali, and first results are expected soon (DADOBAT project).
Little is known about the genetic diversity of tamarind at different geographical scales (El-Siddig et al. 1999 ). For Essays! Based on compare statements, RAPD markers, Diallo et al. ( 2007 ) found a high degree of genetic diversity within Asian and African populations. Three major groups were constituted by populations from West Africa, East Africa, and Cameroon. The highest level of diversity was recorded in a population from Cameroon. The high genetic diversity revealed in West African populations indicates that there is no immediate risk of genetic erosion in this region, as long as ecological conditions continue to permit regeneration.
Displacement of seed by humans is believed to have played a major role in shaping the distribution of the species and the observed pattern of on disorganized schizophrenia, diversity. Compare Thesis Statements! Though the species is application, believed by many to have its origin in Africa (references in compare contrast El-Siddig et al. 2006 ), Diallo et al. ( op. cit. ) found no conclusive evidence for studies on disorganized, this. In Senegal, eco-physiological behaviour of T. indica is presently being studied: a few individual trees are characterised in compare thesis statements situ and seedlings from several agro-ecological zones are characterised under greenhouse conditions subjected to drought stress. Similar experiments are underway with T. indica accessions from critical for crime and punishment, Mali (DADOBAT). Status for domestication of writing compare contrast thesis statements, T. indica in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
Existing provenance trials. Collection of critical for crime, half-sib families in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Provenance and half-sib collections from the rest of the distribution area. Lack of writing contrast thesis statements, information on phenotypic variability and heritability. Characterisation and evaluation. Adaptive and fruit traits from provenance trials. Ecophysiological stress trials. No information at family level. Mating systems and help with resume, patterns. Studies of pollination in Burkina Faso. Degree of writing compare thesis statements, inbreeding.
Effective population sizes. Provenance trials and new BSO trials. Coaching Thesis! Need to include the rest of the distribution area (see germplasm collection) Vitellaria paradoxa is used for firewood and charcoal, whereas fruit flesh is consumed fresh. Nuts are an important product as the latter can be transformed into butter used for cooking, in cosmetics and as a cocoa butter substitute. Natural V. paradoxa stands are in many places ageing and writing compare contrast statements, especially in the northern parts of the critical for crime and punishment distribution area degrading. Reasons are probably complex with both intensive land use and compare thesis statements, frequent occurrence of thesis statement cheating, drought periods playing an contrast important role. The EU-funded INNOVKAR project attempts to coaching in hospitality education thesis improve management recommendations for V. paradoxa parklands based on their ability to face drought and by prediction of the distribution of shea tree under future climatic scenarios. The work follows three approaches, including (1) characterisation of contrast statements, abiotic variables, tree phenology and 13 C discrimination of V. paradoxa populations across their natural range; (2) analysis of tree structure, morphological and for essays, eco-physiological traits in nursery experiments with three water regimes, combined with carbon budget estimation of trees in natural parkland systems; and (3) modelling of changes in the distribution of shea tree under different climate change scenarios (Bayala et al. 2008 ). The species appears to perform best in agricultural settings.
Lamien et al. ( 2004 ) conducted a study aimed at comparing fruit production of shea nut trees located in agroforestry parklands to those present in natural habitats. Results revealed that 94% of trees located in agroforestry parklands produced fruits against writing contrast thesis statements only 56% of economics, trees located in natural habitats. Average kernel yield of trees located in writing compare thesis statements agroforestry parklands was 167% higher than that of trees located in natural stands. Fruits (length, width, weight) were also larger in parklands compared to those taken outside parkland populations. The same was found in a study from Mali (Kalinganire, unpublished data). Insect infestation of shoots and fruits was shown to be more serious in a site close to a natural forest than in a site further away, and is likely to have an impact on fruit production (Lamien et al. 2008 ). Resistance to insects could thus be a trait considered in domestication programmes. Mistletoe ( Loranthaceae ) infestation which is present on most V. paradoxa trees however did not appear to affect fruit production (Lamien et al.
2006 ). Studying nuts from different populations across the distribution area, Maranz et al. ( 2004 ) found large variation in the seed’s fatty acid composition, with fats from Uganda being liquid at room temperature. In West Africa, the composition is variable both between and within populations, with the hardest butter obtained in central Burkina Faso. A trial with five provenances from Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal is located in Burkina Faso. Topics For Essays! The aim was to contrast address issues such as the long juvenile phase and large variability in annual fruit yields. Seeds for these provenances were harvested on trees selected by farmers for their desirable characteristics including, among others, precocity, taste, and oil content (Bayala et al. 2009 ). Analysis after 6 years revealed significant differences among provenances for tree height, collar diameter, transpiration rates, and number of vanderbilt application essay, leaves.
The local provenance was performing poorly, whereas another provenance from Burkina Faso and a provenance from Mali showed good performance in terms of growth. ICRAF in Mali has a collection of 110 plus trees (clones) from Burkina Faso, Benin, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroun, Niger, and Mali. The INNOVKAR project made a new collection of germplasm, including material from writing compare contrast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Senegal and Uganda, which has been used for a new provenance trial in Burkina Faso. If successful this trial will make it possible to compare fruit and oil properties of economics, West and East African origins when grown at the same site. The INNOVKAR collection will be established in orchards serving future breeding purposes. Eco-physiological stress trials to characterise the germplasm with respect to drought tolerance are ongoing. A small clonal trial in farmers’ fields in Burkina Faso with grafting of 10 local plus trees has been established by CNSF in Burkina Faso. The trial has shown that flowering is initiated earlier in grafted plants and studies of variation in writing thesis statements the fruit set and quality are ongoing. Once completed, calculations of clonal performance will be available. These data will show to what degree fruit characters are transferred when material is grafted on wild rootstocks, and thus give an idea of the case studies gains that can be obtained by writing contrast thesis statements selecting plus trees. Fontaine et al. ( 2004 ) studied populations from across the distribution area with RAPD markers and found segregation between eastern and western populations.
Three chloroplast microsatelite markers, used by the same authors, gave a less clear picture. Need Help Resume! Sanou et al. ( 2005 ), using microsatellite markers, found low levels of compare statements, heterozygosity and low differentiation between populations from Mali and northern Ivory Coast. However, morphological leaf characters showed a strong and significant differentiation between families as well as populations. These differences were not associated with clinal variation in rainfall. In Mali, spatial genetic structure has been assessed (Sanou et al. 2006 ), whereas studies on seed dispersal (Burkina Faso) and pollen flow (Mali) are in progress as part of the INNOVKAR project. These studies will shed light on critical essays, the genetic dynamics and structures at the landscape level. Status for domestication of contrast thesis statements, V. paradoxa in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
ICRAF clone collection from West Africa. Provenance trial in Burkina Faso. Farmer based selection of help, superior clones is taking place. Collection of provenances from Uganda to Senegal ongoing. Relatively good collection on a regional scale, but there may be a need to sample more intensively for locally adapted material. Compare Contrast! Local studies of genetic variation in molecular genetic markers as well as fruit and leaf characters underway. Coaching In Hospitality Thesis! Study of clonal variation ongoing. No information about writing compare thesis heritability of for essays, fruit characters. Characterisation and evaluation.
SSR based studies of genetic differentiation available. Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing. Few genotypes in existing clonal trials. Mating systems and patterns. Molecular based studies of seed and pollen dispersal in progress.
Degree of inbreeding not established. Provenance trial + clone collection. Farmer selected clones will be conserved in writing thesis replicated trials. Need to duplicate clone selections. Grafting and layering techniques developed. Other vegetative propagation techniques are missing. It is believed that Z. mauritiana originates in Asia but has spread through cultivation to Africa, where it became naturalised. The species is university, preserved in farmlands because of its nourishing fruits and is also increasingly planted as a live fence to compare contrast thesis protect crops grown during the dry season. A survey in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal revealed that this species is among the farmers’ 10 most preferred species (Bonkoungou et al. 1998 ). However, the small size of the fruit of the statement for academic local cultivar (1–2 g per fruit) and its sensitivity to pests and diseases limit the adoption of writing compare contrast thesis, agroforestry techniques based on this species (Ouedraogo 1998 ; Diallo et al. 2000 ). In Asia, domestication of the economics for essays species has been ongoing for centuries, and more than 300 cultivars have been recorded.
Asian cultivars typically have large juicy fruits up to 3 ? 5 cm, whereas fruits of the African naturalised origins are much smaller, 1–2 cm in diameter (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Cultivars are mainly consumed fresh, but in the Sahel, the local “wild” fruits are also consumed dry, or pounded and transformed into flour for different uses. Fruit yield during the first two growing seasons of three Asian varieties was shown to writing compare be several times higher than the yield of a local variety in Burkina Faso (Ouedraogo et al. 2006 ). Research on the species has been synthesised by Azam-Ali et al. Case Schizophrenia! ( 2006 ), showing that there are numerous domestication efforts going on in Asia. Domestication activities of the writing contrast thesis statements species in critical essays and punishment the Sahelian West Africa are recent, and two strategies have been applied: import of cultivars from Asia, and test and selection of local landraces. Twelve of the Asian varieties have been transferred to West Africa by ICRAF, and writing compare contrast statements, five of help with, them are currently being promoted by different institutions in the region (e.g. Statements! Ganaba et al. 2007 ). Vanderbilt University Application! Ouedraogo et al. ( 2006 ) studied responses of three imported and one local cultivar to irrigation and fertilization and found clear responses to both treatments.
The SAFRUIT project is currently studying adaptability and yield of five varieties in three agroclimatic zones in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Writing Compare Contrast Thesis! Six provenance and half-sib family trials of Z. mauritiana were established in Senegal, Burkina Faso and Mali from 2000 to 2002. Preliminary results from Mali and Senegal showed significant differences in growth and biomass production among provenances, whereas there were indications that fruit production also varied between provenances (Kalinganire et al. 2008 ). Because Z. mauritiana will fructify after only 2–3 years, the thesis statement provenance trials mentioned earlier can already be analysed with respect to fruit yield and quality. Studies are ongoing in compare Mali and will give valuable information about topics family heritability, provenance, and family variation. The first evaluations reveal some variation in compare contrast thesis statements morphological traits (Sanou, unpublished data).
In Asia, studies of cultivars have shown high heritability for a number of fruit traits (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). It remains to be confirmed whether this is also true for genotypes from West Africa. ICRAF has collected more than 70 plus trees from Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Senegal that were established in a clonal orchard at Bamako. Moreover, the introduced cultivars and need help, varieties from Thailand, India and Vietnam make the writing compare contrast statements collection more diverse. The germplasm collections from the Sahelian West Africa are estimated to be sufficient to coaching in hospitality education establish a breeding population. However, it may be reasonable to enlarge the collection especially with genotypes from the extremes of the distribution area in order to ensure adaptability in a time with changing climates.
Many of the Asian cultivars appear to be polyploid, whereas the ploidy of compare contrast thesis statements, African origins seems to be unknown (references in case schizophrenia Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Polyploidy may lead to incompatibility and failure of controlled crosses, but can also be exploited in breeding. There was a very low fruit set and some incompatibilities when crossing between various accessions from India and Thailand with Sahelian provenances (Kalinganire et al. this issue). Compare Contrast Thesis Statements! The level and causes of such failures need to be further investigated. Many of the Asian cultivars are self-incompatible, but the economics topics situation is not clear for Sahelian sources (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Writing Contrast Thesis Statements! Status for domestication of Z . mauritiana in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
Collection of plus trees from West Africa. Provenance trials in Senegal, Mali and case studies, Burkina Faso. Expand collections in writing compare statements the extremes of the distribution area. Estimated for some Asian varieties. Thesis Statement Cheating! Not available for African sources. Characterisation and evaluation. Ongoing research on provenance trials and half-sib progeny trials in Mali. Need to repeat trials in other countries and conditions.
Mating systems and patterns. Incompatibility between African and Asian varieties. Degree of inbreeding. Effective population sizes. Hybridization (between improved and wild varieties) Phylogeny and relation between Asian and African origins. Gene flow studies. Plus tree collection at ICRAF and several provenance trials in West Africa. Plus tree collection should be established at other sites.
Grafting and different micropropagation techniques developed. Domestication of writing compare contrast thesis statements, fruit trees in the western Sahel has just started, and there is still a long way to go for tree breeders. For all of the five species discussed above, germplasm collections have been made, either on plus tree candidates or on randomly selected trees. The collections seem to be relatively broad and for crime and punishment, cover large parts of the distribution areas, especially in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. For P. biglobosa , however, collections are limited to Burkina Faso and Mali.
Despite the broad collections, there may be reason to make additional collections at the extreme limits of the distribution areas, in particular in the dry zones of the north and the relatively humid areas in the south. In this way, germplasm that is supposedly adapted to climatic extremes could be secured (e.g. Thesis! Weber et al. 2008 ). Unfortunately, much of the collected germplasm is only planted in the field in one or a few sites, making the collections vulnerable to stochastic and catastrophic events. Ideally, the application essay collections should be established in at least two copies in each agroclimatic zone where the species occur. In particular, the valuable plus tree collections at ICRAF in Mali should be replicated in other countries in West Africa. Even more important is that there are no regional or even national plans for conservation of the compare contrast thesis statements genetic resources of the vanderbilt university application essay different species. Conservation efforts are not coordinated between countries, and compare thesis statements, are fragmented and need help, depending on externally-funded projects.
It is thus difficult to get an overview of the conservation status. Writing Compare Contrast Statements! Breeding efforts are only just starting, and it will take some years before the first cycles of recurrent selection are completed. With respect to knowledge of the genetic parameters, there is some information about phenotypic variability, especially with regards to characters related to adaptation. Critical! However, information about the heritability of those characters and heritability of fruit characters is almost completely lacking. This information will not become available before BSO orchards mature. Probably the first information will come from studies of Z. mauritiana , where trials are fructifying and controlled crossings have already been made. Fortunately, efficient vegetative propagation methods have been developed for all the species presented here except for contrast thesis statements, P. biglobosa , so that increasing yields and quality of fruits is possible by selection and propagation of superior genotypes. Current activities of studies on disorganized, e.g. the SAFRUIT project aim at developing techniques at compare contrast thesis statements the village level, enabling farmers to propagate their own selected material. Critical Essays And Punishment! Molecular marker studies have served to better understand issues of diversity and to some degree the phylogeography of the species. For all of the species discussed, effective population size, degree of inbreeding, and minimum isolation distance are unknown. Statements! Additional research is needed on pollination biology for most species, and in general the mating systems and patterns are poorly understood.
The reports of high genetic variability and heritability from application essay, other fruit trees (as discussed above) indicate that substantial gains may be obtained during the selection and testing phases if performed carefully. However, the gain during the initial mobilisation phase (plus tree selection) may be modest for West African Sahelian fruit trees, because the heterogeneous landscape within which the initial selection is performed, different ages, and year-to-tear variation between trees may lead to low heritability. On the compare thesis other hand, since selection at this stage can be very intensive (1:100 or higher), gains may be substantial for economics, traits of medium or high heritability. Additional gains may be obtained in the mobilisation phase by release of heterosis. Inbreeding can be due to fragmentation or genetic bottlenecks as result of the species’ distribution history, if it grows in a heterogeneous and writing compare contrast statements, dynamic landscape (Dhakal et al. 2005 ). In such cases, selection, seed orchard establishment and subsequent cross breeding between trees with different origins may reverse effects from inbreeding depression and release vigour and reproductive fitness.
Reproductive energy and success, which may be especially sensitive to inbreeding depression (Wiens et al. 1987 ), is a key component of productivity in critical essays and punishment terms of contrast, fruit yield. For Crime! Clarifying the potential of compare thesis statements, release of inbreeding by crossing geographically distant trees is university application essay, therefore important. The Breeding Seed Orchard (BSO) concept has the interesting feature of integrating testing, breeding, seed procurement and conservation efforts in a relatively low input approach (Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 2005 ) and writing compare thesis, selection can be quite efficient, providing substantial gains (Jha et al. 2006 ). BSOs established with a relatively large number of provenances and families can provide the necessary infrastructure for testing, selection, estimation of genetic parameters, breeding (controlled or open pollination), genetic management and seed procurement (Barnes 1995 ). The approach can be combined with clonal deployment of critical for crime, superior genotypes identified at any stage in the improvement cycles, and is currently a part of the domestication strategy of compare contrast thesis statements, P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso. The potentials in recurrent selection programmes for breeding of statement for academic, Sahelian fruit trees are limited by the relatively long expected time until first fruiting for writing statements, many of the species.
Gains from coaching education, selection of superior phenotypes in the field may be harvested sooner if these selected individuals are vegetatively propagated and deployed directly as clones without any additional breeding. In this way the full genetic variation (additive and non-additive) is transferred from the selected trees to contrast statements the grafted plants, allowing utilisation of any genetic variation that is due to a unique combination of thesis, genes at different loci. This is important where specific combinations of taste, fruit size and appearance are desired, and there is a number of potential advantages by using the clonal material directly for African fruit trees (Leakey and Akinnifesi 2008 ). In the initial stages of domestication (the mobilisation phase) clonal deployment seems especially attractive when outstanding individuals can be identified in wild populations, and contrast statements, the characteristics of such trees easily duplicated. If so, clonal deployment can allow fairly rapid multiplication of superior trees through use of multiplication gardens or similar approaches. Over the last few decades, a number of valuable gene pools have been mobilised and testing initiated as described above. However, follow up in terms of help with resume, continued breeding activities will require additional funding, because most of the previous work described above has been supported by external funding. It is therefore fair to assume that National agricultural research institutions only have sufficient funding to exploit the results of the established trials and germplasm collections, if they are enrolled in larger projects. This leads to great losses, because trials and activities are discontinued or not carried through. There are numerous trials for which data were never analysed or published, and unfortunately there are also many examples of writing compare contrast statements, data or trials being wasted because documentation disappeared. Schizophrenia! It requires long term commitment and continuity to carry out domestication, and a stable financial situation appears to be one of the thesis statements prerequisites for efficient breeding programmes. Advanced breeding in temperate fruit tree species has involved testing of thousands of individuals, descending from controlled crosses.
It is statement for academic cheating, important to build capacity at national institutions in the Sahelian West Africa to writing compare contrast statements carry out long term activities on vanderbilt university application, this scale. Sustainability has been an important argument for starting village based participatory domestication programmes, which put farmers in charge of the domestication process (e.g. Writing Contrast! Tchoundjeu et al. 2010 ). Help With Resume! The countries in the Sahel share the same climate and the same agro-ecological zones. Therefore, there is compare contrast, reason to believe that knowledge and genetically improved material developed in education one country can be adapted to corresponding zones in other Sahelian countries. Today, collaboration on domestication across borders is compare contrast thesis, mediated by ICRAF Sahel, whereas collaboration also takes place within the context of the studies different projects. However, coordination could be strengthened and would prevent duplication of research efforts. Closer collaboration and sharing of results and germplasm would be an easy way to increase the impact of the breeding programmes. Compare Statements! One of the priorities thus must be to enhance networking and collaboration between national institutions and researchers when it comes to fruit tree research. In this respect, the roles of fora such as FARA (Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa), PROKARITE, the Sub-Sahara Africa Challenge Programme (SSA-CP), and critical for crime and punishment, the SAFORGEN networks should be analysed. Reaching out to farmers with improved material is another problem.
CNSF, the National Seed Centre in Burkina Faso, is diffusing large amounts of compare, seed and plants to state services, NGOs and projects, and also to some degree to individuals. Yet, surveys show that in rural areas, farmers predominantly use seed and plants collected in their own fields or in nearby villages (R?bild et al. 2005 ). Few of the farmers interviewed had received seed from coaching in hospitality thesis, CNSF, and it appears that improved seed and varieties are only slowly diffusing out in the country. In neighbouring countries where tree seed centres are smaller or non-existent, the situation can only be expected to be more difficult. There is a need to develop pathways for efficient distribution of seeds and plants to writing statements farmers in coaching order for domestication efforts to have any effect whatsoever.
Such strategies could build on the commonly adopted farmer-to-farmer exchange of germplasm, but it seems that a variety of dissemination channels will have to be used to efficiently diffuse seeds and contrast, plants. In this respect, diversifying the approaches is likely to economics topics give a better result. The research underlying this paper originates in writing compare thesis statements several projects, supported by various sources: The Sahelian Fruit Tree project (SAFRUIT, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, contract no. INCO-CT-2005-015465), the need with resume NUTREE project (supported by the Danish Council for Development Research), the DADOBAT project (Domestication And Development Of Baobab And Tamarind, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, INCO contract no. 032217), and the ICRAF/IFAD project “Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests”. We gratefully acknowledge their support. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
Anders R?bild 1 Email author Anders Sondergard Larsen 1 Jan Svejgaard Jensen 1 Moussa Ouedraogo 1 2 Sitske De Groote 3 Patrick Van Damme 3 Jules Bayala 4 Boukary Ousmane Diallo 5 Haby Sanou 6 Antoine Kalinganire 4 Erik Dahl Kjaer 1 1. Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of writing contrast thesis statements, Copenhagen Frederiksberg C Denmark 2. Centre National de Semences Forestieres Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 3. Laboratory for help resume, Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany, Department of Plant Production Ghent University Ghent Belgium 4. ICRAF SAHEL c/o ICRISAT Bamako Mali 5. Institut National de l’Environnement et de la Recherche Agronomique Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 6. Institut d’Economie Rurale Bamako Mali. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Contrast Thesis Statements! .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. Studies On Disorganized Schizophrenia! .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.
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Compare and Contrast Essay – ELLCenter Media
Example Executive Resumes Other Career Marketing Documents. This client had achieved the contrast statements pinnacle of success in a niche of the financial services industry and had grown somewhat bored and ready for a new challenge. With new corporate leadership in place, he felt the winds of change coming and wanted to leave on studies his own terms and at the top of his game. Whether this was advisable or not was irrelevant by writing compare contrast thesis the time he came to me, as he had already resigned his position. His goal was to find a position that would challenge him, and was particularly enthusiastic about the prospect of building another niche player into critical essays for crime and punishment a market leader. The bold red and blue color scheme matched this client’s bold personality. Writing Thesis Statements. The charts and graphs helped emphasize his proven potential as a mastermind for business growth.
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3) Be employed by a larger consulting firm and given charge of a practice area. It is difficult to handle three targets in a single resume, but as many of the same results and benefits would appeal to all of writing contrast, these audiences, I believed there were enough similarities that we could create a single resume. The first page provides an overview and summary of the client’s skills and qualifications, along with some of the big-picture benefits he produces for critical and punishment clients. The rest of the resume showcases some of the more recent and compare thesis, significant projects he has worked on, in for academic, CAR format. Writing Compare Thesis. The accomplishment boxes highlight the key quantifiable facts from each engagement. The client’s earlier experience was included to coaching illustrate the breadth of his skills, which are applicable to industries other than healthcare, although the writing thesis client had chosen to pursue expertise in that narrow niche. Chief Medical Officer - Executive-level Medical Resume. This client was an extremely well educated, non-practicing MD and coaching in hospitality, expert in global clinical RD within the pharmaceutical and writing compare contrast statements, biotech industries.
He came to me with an extremely lengthy and help with resume, detailed CV that he had been trying to use in the corporate world, with little success. It took some extensive consulting with the client to get him to contrast think about his work in terms of results and benefits—especially results or benefits that we could quantify. He simply wasn’t used to thinking about his work in these terms and coaching, this was further complicated by the fact that it truly was difficult to writing compare contrast thesis statements quantify many of his accomplishments. Application Essay. Paring his extensive credentials and writing contrast thesis statements, the technical details of his work down to essays and punishment just three pages was another challenge. The resulting resume was well worth it. The structure, formatting, and design of the writing compare contrast statements entire resume was created to application essay succinctly convey his many technical qualifications and make them as easy-to-read as possible at writing compare thesis just a glance. The highlights and essays and punishment, big-picture impact of his contributions at each company are set apart in an eye-catching box. Notable highlights for each are called out in a bulleted box. I created an addendum for details of writing, his many additional credentials, and I instructed the client to bring this with him as a leave-behind for interviews. Conservative design elements and coloring used in the resume help make it eye-appealing, but appropriate and acceptable to the target industry. This client was challenged with how to write her resume because she was worried that her experience with multiple start-ups (many that were not successful due to essays no fault of her own) reflected poorly on her.
She also struggled with how to communicate her many accomplishments despite the failed startups. Clearly we solved all her problems with this powerful and highly effective resume. She was also in writing compare contrast, a field in which a CV was sometimes requested, but not often. To prepare her for university application essay anything, we created this modular resume that included two addendums that she could include or not, as was appropriate. This accomplished client was ready for his next challenge and loved working in start-ups, early-stage growth companies, and turnarounds. This resume helped him accomplish his goals in writing compare, record time. Within weeks of launching his search, he had accepted a job offer as the CTO of a growing company. Notice the university essay technique used at the end. We didn't want to date the resume further back than we did, but he had some early-career accomplishments that he wanted to convey. The other experience section allowed us to do that without dating the resume too far back. What do you see that is unusual about this resume?
We had reasons not to want to make the dates on this resume too obvious, and yet experience that dated back further than 20 years was still relevant. Rather than listing the dates in a really obvious place, they are within the text of the resume. This may not work in some industries, but given the contrast statements intended audience for this resume, it was a highly effective technique. Entrepreneur Returning to the Corporate World in a Senior Sales Management Role - Sales Manager Resume. Tammy Lawson was on track for a very successful sales management career when she decided to leave the world of traditional employment to purchase and manage a franchise organization that was in distress and case studies, required turnaround.
She was hugely successful in this endeavor and had built the company revenue more than $10 million over the past decade. She had just sold the writing compare company a few months before when she came to me for with a resume. While she had enjoyed the challenge of being her own boss, she yearned to go back to her sales management career, which was her passion. However, she wasn’t sure how to present this in a resume, as her most recent experience made her appear overqualified and drew attention away from her more relevant sales management experience. Her “ideal” job would include some aspect of writing contrast thesis, sales training and essays, mentoring as well, as this was something she loved doing and really excelled at, although none of her previous job titles reflected it.
The solution was a resume that was very strategically written to focus on her most relevant sales qualifications and to deemphasize the fact that she had been the owner and top executive of the franchise company. While we were meticulously honest in compare thesis, our description of vanderbilt application, her most recent experience, we were quite selective about what we included and which aspects of her achievements we chose to focus on in order to emphasize the aspects most likely to be relevant in her next position. A variety of graphics, charts, and graphs called attention to her most impressive accomplishments and areas of compare, qualification. Tammy’s training-related accomplishments are sprinkled throughout the resume. Dr. James Agard was a European-trained MD and U.S.-trained MBA with a long history of accomplishment as a practicing anesthesiologist. While he was still a practicing physician, his career had taken a turn into executive management and he wanted to continue this, hoping to land a CEO role. Help. He offered a very distinctive value proposition: the proven ability to transform medical operations into a unified, seamless, high-quality, and cost-optimized “value-based” sustainable system founded on writing common purpose, vision, and teamwork. In the progressive leadership positions he had held over the most recent decade, he made great headway in this regard. We used a variety of critical essays for crime and punishment, charts, graphs, and writing compare thesis statements, callouts to illustrate this very distinguishing value proposition throughout the resume.
In particular, we illustrated Dr. Resume. Agard’s results in decreasing costs while simultaneously increasing quality of patient care, caseloads, and overall revenue. When Dr. Agard came to me, it was with a very detailed medical CV which included a very confusing chronology of his experience, since many of his positions have been simultaneous. Writing Compare. I rewrote his resume into a traditional executive format that showcased his stories of challenge-action-result-strategic impact success, particularly as they related back to his value proposition. Topics. The emphasis throughout is on contrast his leadership and management competencies, though his clinical highlights and medical credentials add essential credibility and statement for academic, are highlighted in his summary profile. The color scheme of muted greens, browns, and golds create immediate eye appeal and are consistent with Dr. Agard’s conservative personality. Manufacturing Industry CEO Resume. Terrence came to me as a seasoned CEO, to have me prepare his first resume ever. He had a really incredible story for writing why his career had progressed as rapidly as it had (engineer to plant GM almost overnight).
As a young engineering professional, he was on a business trip and ended up talking with the man sitting next to him on the plane. That man was the owner of a company that was troubled and losing money. They had a lengthy discussion in which Terrence offered a number of suggestions about how he would correct the problems and turn the business around. A couple of critical and punishment, weeks later, the company owner called and recruited Terrence to serve as GM of one of the most troubled plants. The hitch: he would receive NO salary until he turned it around. He quickly produced positive results and was later promoted to president of the entire company, and then recruited to the CEO role he was in when he came to me. This story was touched on in the contrast thesis resume by noting that he had been personally recruited by for crime the owner, but I used it more extensively in the letters and biography that I also prepared for him.
An excerpt from writing thesis, one of critical and punishment, those letters: Do you want to be safe and good, or do you want to thesis statements take a chance and be great? I hadn’t heard this quote, attributed to Jimmy Johnson, 20-plus years ago when I took my chance. But it is a chance I will always be grateful I took, as it changed my life forever. Driving profitable business growth, improvement, and sustainable change.
Those are the themes that have been present throughout my career, but my opportunities to really have an impact skyrocketed two decades ago, when by chance or fate I happened to strike up a conversation with the man sitting next to me on an airplane. Coaching In Hospitality Education. At the writing compare contrast time I was a young professional, not long out of college and topics for essays, beginning to establish myself in an engineering career. The man I was talking with turned to writing compare contrast be the owner of a company, and after lengthy discussions regarding business philosophy he offered me a job with the challenge to turnaround a failing manufacturing plant. Thesis. The catch? There would be zero pay until the plant was profitable. As risky as it might have seemed, I had faith in my potential, and somewhere I found the courage to take the chance… Terrence’s personal brand and value proposition was all about writing compare contrast thesis, driving growth and results through the creation of a cohesive company culture of “We.” We showcased this in his profile section, and I called out a quote from him that I had jotted in application, my notes during my consultation with him. The quote was perfect, because it emphasized his focus on producing results through teamwork, but also because it emphasized his philosophy of life and compare contrast thesis, leadership which had been shaped by his early experiences.
Again, we further drew this out in the other documents I prepared for statement him. Terrence had lots of successes and results. The Executive Performance Snapshots call immediate attention to the overriding story of success and his strategic impact in each position while complementing his brand. Compare Statements. Rather than letting the on disorganized reader get lost in a sea of bullets, I used a graphic element on each page to writing thesis illustrate some of his quantified achievements in a format that was quick and easy to scan. The color scheme was selected to give the resume an understated elegance while adding the economics topics visual appeal that would ensure his resume stood out. Insurance Reinsurance Industry Executive.
Sales Engineering Executive Resume. Vice-President, Global Finance Manager Resume. Brianna was an interesting corporate finance executive. She didn’t have particularly strong mathematical or quantitative skills. Statements. Instead, for her it was all about understanding the underlying meaning of the numbers and how that meaning could be used to drive business strategy. As I interviewed her, her passion for this really shone through and she got really excited describing to me how the C-suite executives would come to her and she would help them understand the numbers and help them create strategy from university application, them. Without a doubt, this was the key to her personal brand and unique value proposition and we emphasized it throughout her resume.
The resume was slightly challenging in that Brianna had worked for compare thesis the same, well-known company for many years. This company had a strong public brand, but behind the scenes had really been struggling since the economic crash about two years after Brianna had been hired. She had a really hard time communicating the specifics of need with resume, her contributions to me and she said just the fact that the company was still alive indicated that. But now there were some serious efforts underway to sell the writing contrast thesis company, and as a whole it had never really bounced back from the downfall. After a lengthy conversation I was finally able to distill a number of specific achievements that balanced all of her contributions in regards to critical essays cuts, streamlining, and compare, RIFs with a few stories of growth from when she was first hired and from some specific parts of the business that did grow. The result was a really strong resume that clearly positions Brianna as a high-level strategic and university application essay, finance advisor to writing the C-suite, but also as someone who is also able to produce results no matter what the situation: business growth or streamlining. Thesis Statement For Academic Cheating. The graphic used on the second page, with the plus and compare statements, minus sign, complements this theme. Information Technology Executive Resume - U.S. Expatriate. Carol was an interesting client in that just out of college, 18 years before, she picked up roots and moved internationally, never looking back as her career took off. Fast forward to economics topics for essays the present and she was the statements mother of two school-aged children and case studies, really wanted to return to the U.S.
We intentionally made her U.S. citizenship and desire for writing compare contrast thesis statements a return to thesis statement for academic the U.S. very, very clear in writing compare contrast thesis statements, the header of her resume. But, we were concerned that even understanding her citizenship, potential employers might view her complete break from the U.S. negatively, so I wrote the text of her resume to really emphasize how she was recruited and promoted aggressively over for crime and punishment the years, as a way to explain why she had stayed in Ireland for so long. This was also a major theme of the cover letters I wrote for her, as you can see from this excerpt: Some people swear that timing is everything. Others insist that successful people make their own luck. Contrast Thesis Statements. As a 20-something who picked up roots and relocated internationally, I wasn’t really thinking about either at the time.
Today, more than 18 years into an ever-progressing and always successful career, I am a true testament to both. Coming out of college with an critical essays and punishment, M.B.A. and a computer science degree from one of the compare contrast most prestigious universities in the world, just as the dot.com era was being born in 1996, there could hardly have been a better place in need help with, the world for me to be than Europe. After all, as I’m sure you know, Ireland is contrast thesis statements, well known as a world-class hub for high tech innovation and in hospitality, startups. As a talented, ambitious, creative, and pioneering system and software architect, designer, and compare statements, developer I was aggressively recruited to work on a number of innovative and start-up technology initiatives and products. Recognized very early on for my leadership, I was sought out for critical team leadership roles in the first year of my career, a trend that has continued and accelerated since. Carol’s original resume was extremely detailed and technically focused. I rewrote it to emphasize her leadership and writing contrast, management credentials and potential.
Her major strengths included her unusually strong ability to clearly and essays for crime, deeply understand the writing contrast thesis statements issues at hand, cut through the clutter, and focus on the pivotal points most critical to success, creatively overcoming any obstacles on the path. These strengths drove her key value proposition: the proven ability to steer world-class product development organizations to increased competitive advantage and stronger sales, profits, and shareholder gains by vanderbilt application essay leveraging innovation and maximizing quality and performance. This value proposition is contrast thesis statements, clearly conveyed in university application essay, her resume profile and also through the stories of success and writing thesis statements, achievements throughout her resume. The graphical and studies on disorganized, design elements in the resume gave her resume immediate visual appeal, but also provided us a way to convey the key results and contributions she had made. With a goal of highlighting the content of her resume rather than drawing the contrast thesis eye away to studies on disorganized schizophrenia design elements alone, we chose a muted color scheme that clearly let her impressive achievements shine through. Senior Sales Manager Resume - Industry Career Change. Jack Asher is an compare contrast thesis statements, extraordinarily accomplished and ambitious sales management executive with a BOLD and engaging personality—the type of person who has a presence that “fills” up a room when he walks into topics for essays it.
His leadership style was equally. bold and highly effective, as evidenced by the outstanding results he had produced consistently throughout his career. He had been in the insurance industry since the start of writing thesis, his career. Jack’s goal was to transfer his extraordinary sales management experience into a new industry. Help With Resume. Including the thesis statements names of on disorganized, his employers, which clearly indicated they were insurance. companies, was unavoidable, but we were careful to strip the compare thesis resume of for academic cheating, any other industry-specific language that would. pigeonhole him. The language used throughout the resume was carefully chosen to help show how Jack’s experience was transferable. The bold red and black color scheme and layout was selected to complement his personal brand and writing contrast thesis, value proposition which was all about bold leadership of top-producing sales organizations. The format allowed us to call out and draw attention to the. major achievement at each company, while further illustrating his value proposition with many results-indicative numbers.
The testimonial on with the second page was a perfect addition as the writing compare contrast statements person had used language that clearly supported Jack’s brand. The. representative accomplishments section on the first page gave us a place to showcase Jack’s most impressive, career-wide accomplishments. For almost her entire career this client had worked for the same hotel and resort company, which if presented incorrectly could make her career look stagnant. As she was hoping this resume would help her make the transition to the CFO level, it was important to topics for essays show that while her experience was all in one company, it was still progressive. The client was also concerned that her SVP job title wasn’t reflective of her potential and writing statements, she really wanted to emphasize that she had worn many hats in a growing company, as well as the acting-CFO for a number of months. In order to application really showcase the concepts of growth and writing compare contrast thesis, progression, the resume content and design was strategically developed to highlight the exponential growth of the company during the time this client was working for them, as well as her eight promotions through the years. Essays And Punishment. The charts on the front page, with the writing eye-catching upward pointing arrows, really emphasize the business growth, while the red-shaded accomplishment boxes in the body of the essays and punishment resume emphasize the client’s progression as well as the depth, diversity, and significance of her most prominent accomplishments. The client hoped to remain in writing compare statements, the hospitality/hotel industry or a related industry, so her relevant expertise in thesis statement, these was promoted in the text. Her passion and unique value proposition was all about building connections and teamwork to drive results, and this is really called out in the profile section with the included quotes.
International Executive - CEO / COO Resume. This client was a multicultural, multilingual American expat who had spent his entire career working in the Middle East. He was very accomplished and prided himself on creating ethical and writing contrast thesis statements, transparent organizations that produced outstanding results and helped propel companies to the next level of success. He had progressed quickly in case, his career and writing compare thesis statements, was leading at the very highest level in vanderbilt university, his company, but without the compare thesis title to go along with it. He hoped to move his career to the next level, but was worried that his job title didn’t convey his level of experience.
We quickly addressed this in the job description, justifying his targeting of CEO roles. The rest of the resume is very results-focused and his contributions are highlighted using a variety of design, graphical, and charting techniques. We chose a very conservative color scheme that the client thought would appeal to the audience he was targeting. We anticipated two primary audiences for the resume: 1) American companies doing business in coaching in hospitality thesis, the Middle East and 2) Middle Eastern companies doing business in the U.S. So as not to contrast thesis statements confuse the reader, we thought it was best to specify in application essay, the resume which currency we are referring to when we give monetary figures. North American Controller Vice President - Finance Resume. Lucy was concerned that she had spent nearly a decade with a company that had been in rapid growth mode when she first joined them, but then quickly went into decline, beginning in 2008, along with the compare economy.
She was worried that the company’s revenue decline would reflect back negatively on her capabilities. A second concern was that she had resigned from her last company with plans to start an thesis, independent consulting firm. While she completed a few small assignments, she did not enjoy the sales and marketing aspect of running her own firm, and jumped at compare statements the chance to go back to traditional employment. Unfortunately, this left a not very flattering time period in her employment history. In consultation with the coaching in hospitality education client, it became clear that while her current employer’s revenues had declined (an aspect of the company she had zero control over), her contributions in reorganizing and streamlining the company so that it remained vital and positioned for writing compare future growth when the economy rebounded, were absolutely essential. Without her financial leadership, the company may have failed completely during these years. Instead, by the time we were preparing this resume, the situation was looking much more optimistic for the company and they were entertaining several options to restart growth once again. The client’s very real contribution in all of this was her transformation of the financial function from just an accounting arm of the economics company into a strategic business partner, a value proposition that we showcased throughout the resume.
Care was also taken to balance the content with growth-focused language and writing thesis statements, achievements, to illustrate that Lucy’s value proposition was just as relevant and beneficial when a company was in growth mode. Coaching In Hospitality. This helped to prevent her from being pigeon-holed as a leader for downsizing initiatives. Lucy was not able to provide any significant accomplishment stories from her consulting years. So, rather than take page space and attention away from the writing contrast more relevant experiences, we chose to describe the consulting briefly at the end of the resume. To minimize the possible immediate impression of a gap in the resume, the employment dates were strategically placed next to job titles where they were not as visually obvious.
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